Protein Synthesis

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  • Protein Synthesis
    • DNA
      • Long  Polypeptide chains
      • Used as the base for mRNA
      • Contains  introns and exons
      • Identical in every cell within an organism
      • Contains genes
      • Pyrimidine  Bases: Cytosine Guanine
      • Purine Bases: Adenine Thymine
      • Deoxyribose sugar
      • Hydrogen bonding between the two polypeptide chains
      • Never leaves nuclear envelope
    • Transcription
      • 3. RNA nucleotides then form hydrogen bonds on one of the DNA strands
      • 2. This exposes unpaired bases on the nucleotides of the DNA strands
      • 4. This way a  chain of RNA nucleotides which is complimentary to the DNA is formed
      • 1. DNA Helicase unwinds part of the DNA strands
      • 5. RNA polymerase then joined the ribose phosphate backbone of the RNA nucleotides
      • 6. The molecule that has been formed is known as  pre-mRNA
        • It contains both introns and exons
      • 7. Before the pre-mRNA leaves the nuclear envelope it has to be edited to remove the non-coding introns
        • Once the editing is complete mRNA is left and can leave the nucleus
    • Translation
      • 7. Once the ribosome has read the entire sequence it releases the polypeptide chain and detaches from the mRNA
      • 3. Ribosome can only use amino acids attached to tRNA
      • 6. The amino acids are joined together to form a polypeptide chain
      • 2. One or more ribosomes attach to the mRNA, each moves along reading the sequence of codons
      • 5. The tRNA molecule carries an amino acid on a specific site
        • The tRNA with a certain anticodon always carries the same amino acid
      • 1. Newly formed mRNA moves to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
        • Through nuclear pores in nuclear envelope
      • 4. tRNA molecules have anticodons that pair with their complimentary codon
    • RNA
      • mRNA
        • Involved in transcription and translation
        • Single linear polypeptide chain
        • Can leave  the nuclear envelope through nuclear pore
        • Base pairing for the amino acids in the formation of polypeptide chains
      • tRNA
        • Single clover -shaped polypeptide chain
        • Brings amino acids to the ribosomes to form polypeptide chains
        • Hydrogen bonds between some base pairs
        • Has an anticodon complimentary codon
      • Purine bases: Adenine Uracil
      • Pyrimidine bases: Cytosine Guanine
      • Ribose sugar

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