Protein production and the cytoskeleton

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  • Created by: Zainab10
  • Created on: 13-04-17 16:57
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  • Protein production
    • Proteins are made at the ribosome.
    • proteins produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are folded and processed in the RER.
      • they are then transported to the Golgi apparatus, via vesicles.
        • at the Golgi apparatus the sugar chains may undergo more processing, sugar chains are trimmed or added.
          • Protein production
            • Proteins are made at the ribosome.
            • proteins produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are folded and processed in the RER.
              • they are then transported to the Golgi apparatus, via vesicles.
                • at the Golgi apparatus the sugar chains may undergo more processing, sugar chains are trimmed or added.
                  • the proteins enter more vesicles to be transported to the cell surface. here they may be excreted completely or may be attached to the cell surface.
                  • Endocytosis.  some other cells also take in substance by endocytosis.  instead a cell can surround a substance with a section of its plasma membrane. the membrane pinches off to form a vesicle, inside containing the substance
                    • some molecules are too large to be taken in by carrier proteins.
                      • Exocytosis  some cells produce a substance which needs to be excreted. vesicles containing these substances pinch off to form the sacs of the Golgi apparatus and move towards the plasma membrane. the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and release the contents outside.
                        • membrane proteins cannot be released out of the cell, they are inserted straight into the plasma membrane.
                      • exocytosis uses ATP as an energy source.
              • Ribosomes on the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum make proteins which are excreted or are attached to the cell membrane.
                • proteins which are made in the free ribosomes, stay inside the cell in the cytoplasm.
              • Cytoskeleton.
                • organelles are surrounded by cytoplasm, but this cytoplasm also has more than just chemicals. there are protein  threads running  through
                  • Protein threads are arranged as:
                    • Microfilaments  very thin protein strands
                    • Microtubules   tiny protein cylinders.
                • Functions:       1) the two micros support the cells organelles and keep them in place
                  • 2)            helps strengthen the cell and maintain its shape
                    • 3) responsible for the transport of organelles within the cell and other materials in the cell.
                      • 4) the proteins of the cytoskeleton can also cause the whole cell to move.
                        • E.G. movement of cilia and flagella is caused by the cytoskeletal protein filaments that run through them. so in the case of single cells that have a flagellum( sperm) the cytoskeleton propels the whole cell.
                      • E.G. the movement of chromosomes when they separate during cell division depends on contraction of microtubules in the spindle.
                      • the movement of vesicles around the cell relies on cytoskeletal proteins.
            • the proteins enter more vesicles to be transported to the cell surface. here they may be excreted completely or may be attached to the cell surface.
            • Endocytosis.  some other cells also take in substance by endocytosis.  instead a cell can surround a substance with a section of its plasma membrane. the membrane pinches off to form a vesicle, inside containing the substance
              • some molecules are too large to be taken in by carrier proteins.
                • Exocytosis  some cells produce a substance which needs to be excreted. vesicles containing these substances pinch off to form the sacs of the Golgi apparatus and move towards the plasma membrane. the vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and release the contents outside.
                  • membrane proteins cannot be released out of the cell, they are inserted straight into the plasma membrane.
                • exocytosis uses ATP as an energy source.
        • Ribosomes on the Rough Endoplasmic reticulum make proteins which are excreted or are attached to the cell membrane.
          • proteins which are made in the free ribosomes, stay inside the cell in the cytoplasm.
        • Cytoskeleton.
          • organelles are surrounded by cytoplasm, but this cytoplasm also has more than just chemicals. there are protein  threads running  through
            • Protein threads are arranged as:
              • Microfilaments  very thin protein strands
              • Microtubules   tiny protein cylinders.
          • Functions:       1) the two micros support the cells organelles and keep them in place
            • 2)            helps strengthen the cell and maintain its shape
              • 3) responsible for the transport of organelles within the cell and other materials in the cell.
                • 4) the proteins of the cytoskeleton can also cause the whole cell to move.
                  • E.G. movement of cilia and flagella is caused by the cytoskeletal protein filaments that run through them. so in the case of single cells that have a flagellum( sperm) the cytoskeleton propels the whole cell.
                • E.G. the movement of chromosomes when they separate during cell division depends on contraction of microtubules in the spindle.
                • the movement of vesicles around the cell relies on cytoskeletal proteins.

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