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  • Protein
    • Essential constituent of all cells and must be included in the diet to enable the growth and repair of the body
      • Sources
        • Animal- meat, fish, eggs, milk, cheese
        • Plant- beans, lentils, peas, wheat, rice, nuts
    • Biological value
      • Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and there are about 20 different types commonly found in plant and animals proteins
      • Indispensable (essential) amino acids cannot be made in the body in sufficient amounts
        • HBV contains indispensable amino acids
      • Dispensable amino acids can be made in the body
        • LBV- low in one or more indispensable amino acids
    • Daily intake in the UK is 85g for men and 62g for women
    • Functions
      • Growth of body cells, particularly during the growth spurts of adolescents and the foetus
      • Maintenance and repair of body cells and tissues
      • Provides a source of energy if other sources of energy are lacking in the diet
    • Deficiency
      • Rare in UK but can be common in developing countries
        • 2 most common types of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) are marasmus and kwashiorkor
          • Marasmus occurs in infants under one year of age who have been weaned off breastmilk onto a diet with too little energy and protein
            • Kwashiorkor occurs in children who are weaned off breastmilk onto a diet high in starchy foods that are low in energy and protein
    • Excess
      • Excess protein will be used as energy so can contribute towards a surplus of energy
    • Novel sources
      • Suitable for vegetarians, low in fat, rich in protein and a meat alternative
        • Examples are miso, mycoprotein (quorn), soya, tempeh and tofu


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