Protective barriers from infection

A summary of the protective barriers from infection and entry routed for pathogens

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  • Protective barriers from infection
    • Entry routes for pathogens
      • Vectors like insects
      • Fomites (non-animate objects like hospital bedding and make up)
      • Direct contact
        • Sexual
        • Through children
      • Inhalation (e.g. cough, sneeze, talk)
      • Ingestion
        • Raw or undercooked meat
        • Contaminated food/drinik
      • Inoculation (skin breakage)
        • Needles and contaminated medical instuments
        • Bite from animal
        • Puncture from thorn, knife or rust/stone
    • Skin: impenetrable and secretes sebum which contains chemicals that inhibit the growth of bacteri but not adapted skin  flora
    • Epithelial layers: in nose and gut. Secrete musuc trapping pathogens
      • Mucus: contains lyzosyme which destroys cells walls like in gram+ve bacteria
    • Mucus: contains lyzosyme which destroys cells walls like in gram+ve bacteria
    • Lyzozyme: in tears to protect eyes
      • Lining of the systems: urinary tract constantly washed with urine and cilia cells brush pathogens away from respiratory tract
      • Phagocytes: injest pathogens
      • Saliva and Stomach acid: saliva has bacteriocidal properties and HCl stomach acid pH 2 kills bacteria
        • Gut flora outcompete other pathogens for nutrients and space
      • Blood clotting mechanisms: fibrinogen, thrombin, blood platelets and RBCs help stop infection from broken skin
      • Vomiting; directly removes microorganisms

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