Protection of Human Rights

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  • Protection of Human Rights
    • UN HRC
      • Public shaming
      • No real action is possible
      • Biased and inconsistent in exposure of human rights abuse
      • Veto
        • Russia used 123 times
      • Member states have dubious HR records
    • International Bill of Human Rights
      • Comprehensive guideline
      • Indivisable and interconnected
      • 1966 covenants
        • on Civil and Political Rights
          • Made the rights contained in the UDHR legally binding on all states that signed them
            • on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
        • on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
      • UNDHR
        • Used to apply diplomatic and moral pressure to national governments
        • Not legally binding
    • UN HC
      • can only denounce
    • NGO's
      • Cannot force government to change
      • Impact in UN weak in reation to Security Council
      • Criticised for 'bandwagon' approach
      • Exert political pressure
      • High moral purpose
      • Substantial contribution to growth of Human Rights
    • ECHR
      • Almost total compliance with the Court's verdicts
      • Closest thing there is to human rights 'hard law'
      • State sovereignty trumps human rights considerations
        • Wrongdoings of powerful states are not highlighted by other governments for fear of diplomatic/ economic interests
      • Substantial backlog
        • Often takes 3-5 years for cases to be considered
    • High Profile Violations
      • China
        • Tiananman Square
        • Use of capital punishment
      • USA
        • Guantanamo Bay
        • Extraordinary Rendition
      • Genocide
        • Bosnia
          • 1992-1995 (200,000 dead)
        • Rwanda
          • 1994 (800,000 dead)
        • Holocaust
          • 1938-1945 (6,000,000 Jewish deaths, 11,000,000 total)
    • ICC
      • Strengthening of humanitarian law
        • defining in detail
      • Provides a forum to tackle the global justice gap (abuse and oppression from government)
      • Demonstrates no leader is above international law
      • Threat to state sovereignty
      • Criticised for using international law to further moral campaigns
      • Criticised for having a Western / Eurocentric bias
  • UNDHR
    • Used to apply diplomatic and moral pressure to national governments
    • Not legally binding

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