Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

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  • Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
    • Prokaryotic Cells
      • Have no membrane bound organelles
        • Also includes some unicellular organisms with no nucleus (e.g. bacteria)
      • Cell Membrane
      • DNA
      • Mesosome
      • Ribosome
      • Cell Wall
      • Cytoplasm
      • Plasmid
      • Plius
      • Flagellum
    • Eukaryotic Cells
      • Have membrane bound organelles
      • Exterior cell membrane (plasma membrane) which encloses the cytoplasm of the cell
        • The cytoplasm is a gel-like substance that contains the cell's organelles
      • Also has internal membranes surrounds some of the organelles. They are important because they;
        • Provide a surface to which enzymes can attach and on which reactions can occur
        • Contain harmful chemicals or enzymes stopping them from damaging or breaking down structures in the cell
        • Act as a transport system
      • Animal Cell
        • Cytoplasm
        • Nucleus
          • Nucleolus
          • Nucleoplasm
          • Nuclear Envelope
        • Cell Membrane
      • Plant Cell
        • Middle Lamellae
        • Nucleus
          • Nuclear Envelope
          • Nucleolus
          • Nucleoplasm
        • Vacuole containing sap
        • Cell Membrane
        • Cytoplasm
        • Chloroplast
        • Tonoplast
        • Cell Wall
    • Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic
      • Prokaryotic (bacterial cell)
        • No nucleus- DNA free in the cytoplasm
        • No membrane bound organelles
        • Small ribosomes (70s)
        • Slime capsule- protection
        • DNA is circular
        • Cell wall made of murein
        • Contains plasmids (small circular structures of DNA)
        • Site of respiration is the mesosomes
      • Eukaryotic (animal or plant cell)
        • DNA bound by nuclear membrane
        • Contains membrane bound organelles
        • Larger ribosomes (80s)
        • No slime capsule around cell wall
        • DNA as linear strands (chromosomes)
        • Cell wall made of cellulose
        • No plasmids present
        • Mitochondria is the site of respiration
    • Cells are the basic unit of a living organism
    • Viruses
      • Consist of DNA or RNA (not both) enclosed in a protein coat (matrix). They contain no cytoplasm
    • Cell Differentiation
      • As eukaryotic cells evolved into multicellular organisms, there has to be specialisation of different cell differentiations where cells become adapted to their function
      • A tissue is a group of similar cells working together to carry out the same function
        • Muscle
          • Striated/Skeletal
            • Strong, Quick, Discontinuous, Voluntary
              • Contraction e.g. Biceps
          • Cardiac
            • Strong, Quick, Continuous, Involuntary
              • Contraction
          • Smooth
            • Weak, Slow, Involuntary
              • Contraction e.g. Diaphragm
        • Epithelia
          • Ciliated
            • Microvilli
            • Cytoplasm
            • Cell Membrane
            • Nucleus
            • Mitochondria
          • Cuboidal
          • Found lining body cavities and tubes
          • Function
            • Absorption e.g. of products of digestion in intestinal system
          • Adaptations
            • Microvilli - Increases surface area of cell membrane for absorption
            • Cilia - Trap and move particles e.g. respiratory tract
            • Mitochondria - Many to carry out aerobic respiration, making ATP for active transport
            • Enzymes - Complete digestion so the products have a short diffusion pathway into the cell
        • Connective Tissue (Collagen)
          • Secondary Protein
          • Fibroblasts
          • Provides structural framework for many tissues
          • Most common cells of connective tissue in animals
      • Organs: A group of several tissues joining together to carry out a particular function for the whole organism

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