Production techniques and systems

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  • Production Techniques and Systems
    • Standardised design and components
      • The same components or modular systems are used across many designs.
      • Example: Electrical resistors or nuts and bolts.
      • Advantages: Consistent safety and quality, speeds up product development as parts already exist.
      • Disadvantages: difficult to customise, quality of product may suffer.
    • Just in time (JIT)
      • Parts are only received when neede in the production process and go straight to the production site rather than being stored.
      • Example:  On-demand publishing (e.g. greeting cards)
      • Advantages: can increase efficiency and reduce waste.
      • Disadvantages: cost of more frequent deliveries, fewer bulk - buying discounts.
    • One-off production
      • A single,uniqueproductt made by skilled workers.
      • Example: complex large scale project such as a yacht.
      • Advantages: high quality products.
      • Disadvantages: products are higher priced.
    • Lean manufacturing
      • Reducing or eliminating waste in design, manufacturing, distribution and customer services.
      • Example: eliminating overproduction.
      • Advantages: multi skilled teams are each responsible for part of the production, which can improve efficiency as workers share their skills and expertise.
      • Disadvantages: requires disruptive changes to existing processes.
    • Batch production
      • A set number of products are manufactured that are made in limited quantities or for a limited time.
      • Example: Olympic medals.
      • Advantages: could lower capital costs, reduced storage space.
      • Disadvantage: downtime when reconfiguring the production system.
    • Continuous production
      • Manufacturing of identical high demand products, 24 hours a day.
      • Example: production of glass.
      • Advantages: Removes the cost of stopping and starting the production process.
      • Disadvantages: may lead to staff redundancy.
    • Mass production
      • Efficiently and consistently producing many products at a low cost per unit.
      • Example: Toy manufacture.
      • Advantages: materials can be cheaper in high quantities.
      • Disadvantages: initial set up price can be high.


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