Problems faced by the Italian governments by 1900.

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  • Problems faced by the Italian governments by 1900.
    • Problems in the North.
      • Industrial especially engineering centres of Milan, Turin and Genoa.
      • 1880s = widescale migration to growing towns
      • Po Valley = area of agriculture around major river
      • Medium-sized farms, commercial farming
    • Problems in the centre.
      • Dominated by administrative centre of Rome.
      • Once ruled by the Pope; after 1870 only Vatican City remained under his rule.
    • Problems in the South.
      • Mezzogiorno
      • Little industry
      • Once 'grain basket' of Europe - by the 20th Century the soil was exhausted
      • Large, inefficient noble-owned estates
        • latifundia
      • 1914 = 0.01% of population owned 50% of the land
      • Frequent social unrest
      • Powerful clans and Mafia
    • Problems in agriculture.
      • Majority of population were rural
        • 1913 = 57% (Britain = 15%)
      • A few enterprising, large landowners
        • agrari
      • Most small, agricultural labourers
        • braccianti
      • Tenant farmers, sharecroppers
        • Mezzadri
    • Dialect variations.
      • 'Thursday'
        • Italian =  Giovedi
        • Sicilian = loviri
      • 'boy/child'
        • Italian = bambino
        • Sicilian = Picciottu
    • Regional Variations.
      • Railway (kilometres)
        • North = 1370km
        • Centre = 360km
        • South = 100km
      • Road (kilometres)
        • North = 38,000km
        • Centre = 38,000 km
        • South = 13,800 km
      • Illiteracy (%)
        • North = 68%
        • Centre = 78%
        • South = 87%
      • Attendance to Primary education
        • North = 80%
        • Centre = 34%
        • South = 18%
    • Statistics.
      • Steel production (million tonnes)
        • Italy
          • 1890 = 0.1
          • 1910 = 0.7
        • Britain
          • 1890 = 3.6
          • 1910 = 6.5
        • Germany
          • 1890 = 2.2
          • 1910 = 13.7
        • France
          • 1890 = 0.7
          • 1910 = 3.4
      • Value of foreign trade ($ billion)
        • Italy
          • 1860 = 0.3
          • 1913 = 1.8
        • Britain
          • 1860 = 2.0
          • 1913 = 7.5
        • Germany
          • 1860 = 0.8
          • 1913 = 4.3
        • France
          • 1860 = 0.5
          • 1913 = 3.4
      • Railways (kilometres)
        • Italy
          • 1880 = 9290km
          • 1913 = 18,873
        • Britain
          • 1880 = 28,846
          • 1913 = 38,114
        • Germany
          • 1880 = 33,838km
          • 1913 = 63,378
        • France
          • 1880 = 23,089km
          • 1913 = 40,770km
      • Average hectolitres (100 l) of wheat/hectare
        • Italy = 9
        • France = 19
        • Britain = 25

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