After a guilty verdict- prison alternatives

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  • After a Guilty Verdict- Prison Alternatives
    • Restorative Justice
      • Background-Cognitive
        • Challenges stereotypes, increases guilt, change how offenders see behaviour and impact
      • Sherman and Strang
        • Aim- review good practice in restorative justice and assess effectiveness
        • Method- Content analysis on 424 papers on RJ
          • Internet search on "restorative justice" "re-offending" "recidivism" "mediation"
            • 36 studies compared re-offending with or without  RJ
        • Results- RJ reduced re-offending for violence and property crime
          • Improved victims mental health
        • Conclusion- Rj is effective allowing offender to see harm caused
          • Challenges thought processes, stereotypes, reduces PTSD and re-offending
    • Probation
      • Background- Operant conditioning
        • Positive reinforcement- not in prison, earning money, see family
        • Negative reinforcement- threat of prison
      • Study- Mair and may
        • Aim- Study experiences of offenders on probation
        • Method- Questionnaire, piloted
          • 3299 offenders chosen random from  22 office, all ages and offences
            • Closed questions on offenders life, employment, family, likelihood of re offending
    • Looking death worthy?
      • Background- Stereotyping black features
        • More stereo typically black features are more likely to be given a death penalty
        • Stereotypes associated with positive and negatives
          • Black face seen as less attractive by white people
            • Associated with negative characteristics
      • Study-Eberhart
        • Aim- "stereo typically black feature more likely to get a death sentence than white person"
        • Method- Lab experiment, data base analysis of death eligible cases in Phila
          • 44 cases a black man murdered a white victim
            • 51 naive raters shown photo b+w photo of offender, 4 secs
              • Use facial features to rate how stereo typically black (11 scale)
        • Results-Multiple variables analysed incl attractiveness
          • Most sig variable was stereo-typicality of features
        • Black defendants death penalty 57.5% of time
          • Less stereotypically black 24.4% of time
        • Conclusion- Race a blame worthy factor in trial
          • Judge and jurors should be made aware

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