Situational Crime Prevention

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  • Preventing Crime
    • Situational Crime Prevention
      • A pre-emptive approach that relies on reducing opportunities for crime
      • Directed at specific crimes
      • Manages the environment of the crime
      • Increased risk of crime with decreased rewards
      • Target Hardening
        • Measures such as
          • locking doors and windows
          • CCTV
      • Rational choice theory of crime
        • Right Realist Approach
      • Clarke- most crime is opportunistic so there is a need to reduce the opportunity for crime
      • Felson (2002) The Port Authority Bus Terminal New York
        • Poorly designed and provided opportunity for deviant conduct
          • for example rough sleepers
        • Reshaping the environment to "design crimes out reduced criminal activity
          • for example large sinks were replaced by small hand basins so homeless people didn't bathe in them
      • Evaluation
        • Displacement
          • It doesn't reduce crime, it simply displaces it
            • Chaiken et al (1974) found that a crack down on subway robberies in New York merely displaced them to the streets above
    • Environmental Crime Prevention
      • Wilson and Kelling
      • "Broken windows" stands for the signs of disorder and lack of concern for others that are found in some neighnourhoods
      • Leaving broken windows unrepaired shows tolerance by sending a signal that nobody cares
      • Absence of formal and informal social control
      • Police turn a blind eye to petty crime while respected members of the community feel intimidated and powerless
      • Without action, the situation deteriorates, tipping the neighbourhood into a spiral of decline
      • Respectable people move out and the area becomes a magnet for deviants

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