Pressure groups UK

  • Created by: meliasyd
  • Created on: 19-05-19 17:28
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  • Pressure Groups
    • Political parties
      • Differences
        • Pressure groups = seek to influence Political parties = seek power
        • Pressure groups = seeks to represent minority Political parties = represent majority
        • Nature of large, 'catch all' parties and pressure groups highly different - organisation + aims
      • Similarities
        • Some parties (eg. Greens and UKIP) are single issue
        • Pressure groups such as trade unions may be permanent - like political parties
        • Pressure groups and minority parties have some similarities because of nature of British politics
    • Sectional
      • Seek to protect interests of members eg. trade unions
      • British Medical Association - trade union protecting and advocating for British Doctors
      • NASUWT - National Association of Schoolmasters Union of Women Teachers
      • Identifiable section of society
    • Promotional / Causal
      • No single identifiable type
      • Promote or defend a single issue - seeking to change attitudes / educate
        • Not directly related to self interest of members
      • Greenpeace - environmentalist pressure group
      • RSPB - Royal Society for the Protection of Birds protecting wildlife + birds
      • Electoral Reform Society - campaigns in favour of proportional representation
    • How pressure groups exert influence
      • Lobbying
        • Direct access to government officials
        • Can benefit the group + the goverment by informing of public opinion
        • eg. Jamie Oliver Soft drinks industry levy
      • Untitled
      • Give evidence at hearings
        • Consultations and select committees may invite pressure groups as a communication line
        • Groups can advocate for members and influence those in power
      • Publicity campaigns
        • Media / cyberactivism in order to use social media to mobilise support
        • Greenpeace + reddit
        • Mumsnet - childcare vouchers
      • Public demonstrations
        • Direct action
        • eg. Extinction rebellion
        • eg. UK Uncut - protest tax avoidance and welfare cuts
      • Civil disobedience
        • Sit ins
        • Picketing (outside a workplace)
        • Protest marches
      • Striking
      • Celebrity spokesperson
        • Ghurka Justice - Joanna Lumley
        • Sugary drinks - Jamie Oliver
    • Insider groups
      • Close relationship with a govt department
      • May be regularly consulted by a select committee
      • Links to a political party
      • eg. National Farming Union - NFU
      • Confederation of British Industry - CBI has links with tory party
      • Lobbyist tactics
    • Outsider groups
      • No productive links to government - outside of decision making and not consulted
      • Greater freedom to act as they wish eg. civil obedience
      • eg. Greenpeace - obstructing whaling ships
      • Plane stupid - opposition to airport expansion
      • More likely to use direct action
    • Factors affecting success
      • Insider status
        • Having access to government officials means direct influence
        • 2014 Howard league for penal reform successfully campaigned to end ban on prisoners receiving books
      • Wealth
        • Financial resources allow groups to pay for promotional things - eg lobbyist
        • British Bankers' Association cut corporation tax 2012
      • Large membership
        • Having a lot of members can mean that groups can have large impact
          • Large numbers of signatures on petitions / protestors
      • Organisation
        • Effective management and coordination will allow a group to achieve goals
        • Transport workers bonus during 2012 Olympics
      • Expertise
        • If a group has large knowledge on an issue - a government is likely to take note / act upon recommendations
        • 2016 - AA provided evidence to increase penalty for mobile phone use
      • Celebrity endorsement
        • Popular celebrity - generate press interest and raise profile
        • Joanna Lumley Ghurka Justice 2009
        • Jamie Oliver soft drinks industry levy 2016
      • Respectable tactics
        • Use of violent protest / direct action can reduce effectiveness of a campaign
        • Extinction rebellion - condemnation of movement reduced effectiveness

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