Press

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 04-03-16 10:36
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  • Press
    • Spotlight
      • Dramatized account of the Boston Globe's reporting of abuse in the Catholic Church
    • Attacking the Devil
      • Harold Evans - Former newspaper - The Sunday Times - expose of the Thalidomide scandal
    • 1. Pioneers: The early years
      • a.. The Gutenberg 'Revolution'
        • German inventor of mechanized printing mid 15th Century
          • Offers potential for widespread publishing
            • But low levels of literacy = readership limied
      • Untitled
      • b. Propaganda War
        • The English Civil War (1642 - 51) major upheaval
        • Propaganda
          • A term coined by Catholic Church in 1622 in its mission to defend and promote the faith
      • c. Printed Media
        • 18th Century saw steady growth in newspaper production
          • 1764 - 1 million readers
          • 1800 - 50 titles published in LDN and 100 provinces
      • d. The Journal of Record
        • Leading title serving the provinces as well as LDN - 1785
          • Intitally called the Daily Universal Register - renamed THE TIMES in 1788
    • 2. Growth Industry: the 1800s
      • A. 19th Century Britain
        • Political changes: Democratization = Reform Act. Agitation = Chartist movement
          • Industrialization
            • 1870 Education Act
              • Priniting - Rotary press
      • Readership approximately 2 million by early 1830s
      • b. Free Press
        • Between 1853 - 61 the British Government scrap stamp after 150 years of levying them
      • c. New Journalism
        • Editor Stead's Pall Mall Gazette promotes this style of reporting
        • Critic Matthew Arnold dismisses writes as feather brained - 1877
      • D. The Power of Advertising
        • James Curran suggests ad revenue crucial
        • deprived of ads, radical decline as mainstream titles like the NEWS OF THE WORLD prosper
        • The notion of 'free press' is misplaced because wealthy proprietors (the barons) increasingly dominate the industry
    • 3. Press Barons: into the 20th Century
      • Fleet street = hub of the national media 20th C.
        • Mail, Mirror, Express and Herald
      • Daily Mail
        • 1896 = Alfred Harmsworth
          • 1905 = Lord Northcliffe
            • Brother Harold - Lord Rothermere
              • Sustains the Northcliffe Revolution through its highly profitable, sensationalist appeal
        • Zinoviev Letter published before 1924 General Election
          • Michael Foot denounced Mail as the forgers gazette for publishing fake
      • Daily Express
        • 1900
          • 1916 - Max Aitken (Lord Beaverbrook)
            • Rupert the Bear
              • Set up his own United Empire Party - opposes Conservative leader
                • Stanley Baldwin's trade policy
      • Daily Mirror
        • Harmsworth - 1903 - also Daily Mail
          • Targeted Women readers
            • Mobilize public opinion during WW2
              • Avoided fate of communist Daily Worker - banned form 1941 - 2
      • Daily Herald
        • Struggled to survive despite having the best selling title by 1933
          • Relanched as The Sun in 1964 - `Bought by Murdoch in 1969
    • 4. Viewspapers: the Making of the Modern Press
      • a. Counting the Cost
        • Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) created in 1933 to produce independently audited newspaper sale figures
        • Herald sold more copies but were not the most profitable
          • The times was - attracted wealthier audiences
      • b. Broadsheets vs Tabloids
        • see distinction in late 20th C.
          • Broadsheets = Times, Telegraph, Guardian, FT and Independent
          • Tabloids = Redtops, Sun, Mirror, Star, Mail and Express
      • c. National Interest
        • 1920 provincial newspapers sell a third more copies than their national rivals
          • 1945 - Nationals selling more than double that of their regional counterparts
            • The Guardian
              • Re lanches in 1959
              • Relocates to London
              • Drops Manchester from title
      • D. Political Animals
        • Free press not regulated like broadcasters so able to make comments during elections
        • Mirror support Labour against Chuchill 1945
        • 1980s Tory Press support - Times, Telegraph, Mail, Express and Sun
      • E. Social Commentators
        • Cohen - mid 60s - Mods and Rockers
          • Press reporting was an important component in creating and sustaining 'moral panic'
      • F. Legal Crusaders
        • Disabled babies born. Taken Thalidomide during late 1950s to 1960s - SUNDAY TIMES
    • Conclusion
      • Shift from interpersonal communication to mass society
      • Untitled

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