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  • Prejudice
    • Stereotypes
      • Stereotype - an oversimplified, generalised set of ideas that we have about others
      • Advantages
        • helpful to make snap judgements
        • enable us to remember information about people
        • enable us to fit in with our groups and feel a sense of belonging
      • Disadvantages
        • don't see the real person
        • create harmful images
        • we make mistakes about people
        • once learnt they are difficult to overcome
    • Prejudice - a rigid set of attitudes + beliefs toward particular group of people.
    • Discrimination - the way somebody behaves towards another person based on their prejudiced view
    • Adorno - 1950
      • aimed to find out if there is a relationship between a person's personality type + prejudiced beliefs
      • hundreds of people interviewed + tested using the F-scale
      • found a relationship between personality traits + prejudiced views
      • there is an authoritarian personality + people with these characteristics are highly likely to be prejudiced
      • Evaluation
        • doesn't explain why people are prejudiced to specific groups
        • done in America - cant be generalised
        • cant determine cause and effect
    • Sherif - 1961
      • aimed to find out if prejudice develops when groups are in competition for scarce resources
      • American summer camp organised for 22 boys
      • randomly split into 2 groups - unaware of each other
      • after a while the groups discovered each other + competitions began
      • very quickly the teams began unpleasant name calling towards each other + tried to attack each other
      • competition is a cause of prejudice
      • Evaluation
        • artificial - doesn't reflect real life
        • 12, white, middle class, American - cant be generalised
        • has real life implications
    • Tajfel - 1970
      • aimed to show how easily people discriminate against out-groups
      • 14-15 year old boys randomly assigned to 2 groups
      • given a game where he had to award pairs of points, told the points could be swapped for prizes
      • boys awarded points by choosing pairings that created the biggest difference between the group not what gave them the most points
      • people will discriminate against others if they are members of an out group
    • Steele 1997
      • stereotype threat - being at risk of conforming to a negative stereotype about your own group
      • gave black and white college students a test
      • stereotype threat condition - told test was based on intellectual ability
      • no threat condition - told test was a problem solving lab-task
      • in stereotype threat condition black people performed worse
    • Elliot 1977
      • aimed to teach her class how it felt be victims of discrimination
      • told class - blue eyed children are better than brown eyed children
      • blue eyed children became delighted + arrogant
      • brown eyed children were saddened + confused
      • next day - reversed experiment - behaviours switched
      • believed children would grow up to be more tolerant towards each other
    • Ways to overcome prejudice
      • Sherif's 1961 study showed that if a group is placed to do an important task they will work together to reach a common goal
      • Aronson's "jigsaw method" - placed people of different races together + gave them a responsibility to complete the lesson - found  prejudiced views were reduced
        • in workplace or school prejudice can be reduced
      • Elliott's study 1977 reduced children's prejudice beliefs as they grew up
      • questionnaires to challenge beliefs


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