Pre 1924 Russia

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  • Pre-1924
    • Structure of Communist Party/Soviet State
      • COMMUNIST PARTY- Communist Party Members elected
        • Party Congress elected
          • Central Committee elected
            • Secretariat
              • Politburo
        • Local Soviets (town councils) elects and sends representatives
          • All Russian congress of Soviets (meets infrequently, elects)
            • Sovnarkom (council of People's commissars) decision-making body/ Head of Sovnarkom - head of state
    • Bolsheviks in Power
      • 1917-1918:
        • Gained popularity from peasants by granting more independence and kept control by persecuting enemies (Cheka) and censorship in newspapers
        • Lenin passed measures giving land to peasants (who'd been suppressed by the Tsar)
      • CIVIL WAR 1918-1921
        • Needed to win -> War Communism-Military production +social, combat economy
        • Enemies - "White Army" (monarchy) "Green Army" peasants wanting democracy, nationalist armies and troops from GB, FRANCE and JAPAN -> RED ARMY - well organised
    • The NEP (1921-1924)
      • famine caused by War Communism led to the NEP
        • 1921 - ban on factions
          • This was where the revial of capitalism in the NEP created divisions - Bukharin (RW) vs left)
      • A legal and private trade which replaced grain requisitioning with a tax in-kind when economy was stable - produce money
      • Kronstat Rebellion (wanted restoration of democracy and end to war communism)
        • Lenin ordered red army assualt - 40,000 RA troops slaughtered 10000 sailors + War Communism stopped -> temporarily capitalist
    • Communist Path to Power
      • TSAR
        • 1905 - Tsar's power, limit civil rights, elected Duma
          • 1914 WW1 united people behind the Tsar - economy stuggled to cope - consumer goods = low = unhelped by peasants fighting
            • 1917 Feb, facing imminent economic collapse and military defeat, petrograd and moscow recruited - army didnt help
              • FORCED TO ABDICATE- "Provisional Government"
      • LENIN
        • April - Bolshev leader, soviets took over local affairs, one council
        • Lenin's "Peace, land and bread" lost credibility = 20th OCT, first socialist republic


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