Power Theories

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  • POWER THEORIES
    • Positive and Negative Politeness (Brown and Levinson)
      • Negative politeness is formal politeness like using formal titles rather than first names
        • It is generally used in formal situations
      • Positive politeness is obvious and outright politeness like compliments and praise
        • It is generally used among friends and family or adults and children
    • Dialogic Texts (Fairclough)
      • Often used in advertisements
      • Things are part of a continuum; a story that is started in one instance, then continued on in another.
        • (Like the Compare the Market Meerkat adverts)
      • It is also releveant in every day life
        • You would not introduce yourself to your friends as you already know each other.
    • Mirror Stage and Apperception (Lacan)
      • This is often used in advertising where it is insinuated that everyone is doing something, so you should do so too.
      • We see ourselves as objects that need to slot into society, so we need to look and behave in a certain way
      • We are made to want to do anything to fit into this society
        • For example, we NEED the perfect perfume.
    • Accommodati-on Theory (Giles)
      • Convergence
        • Speaking similarly to others
      • Divergence
        • Speaking differently to others
      • Upwards
        • Speaking in a higher prestige
      • Downwards
        • Speaking in a lower prestige
    • Power Bases (French and Raven)
      • Legitimate
        • A person has the 'right' to make demands and to expect compliance from others
      • Reward
        • The ability to reward someone for compliance
      • Expert
        • Having superior knowledge or skill in something
      • Referent
        • A person is valued or respected based on their attractiveness or cleverness etc.
      • Coercive
        • The ability to punish another for non-compliance
    • Grice's Maxims
      • Quantity
        • Only ever say what is needed, no more and no less
      • Quality
        • Ensure that what you say is true and supported by facts
      • Manner
        • Always be polite
      • Relevance
        • Only mention things that are relevant to the topic.
    • Power in the Workplace (Tannen)
      • Whereas the worker will be comfortable and familiar in their surroundings.
        • As it is an every day occurrence for them.
      • The idea that non-professionals will be unfamiliar and inexperienced in the environment and expectations of a workplace.
        • As for them it is a 'once-in-a-blue-moon' occurrence.
    • Members' Resources (Fairclough)
      • In many situations the person with the most power is the most likely to be trusted and believed..
    • Power in and behind the Discourse (Fairclough)
      • The two ways in which a text can affect the reader:
        • Whilst reading (power in the discourse)
          • What is literally said in the text
        • After reading (power behind the discourse)
          • What is meant by the text
    • Language as a Tool of the Workplace (Vygotsky)
      • Sophisticated  or authoritative language ensures that one person is seen as in charge and in control by the other.
      • For example, trying to appear under control at work in front of a customer.
    • Linguistic Relativity and Determinism (Saphir-Whorf)
      • Linguistic Determinism:
        • Our thinking is limited by the words that we know
      • Linguistic Relativity:
        • People from other cultures will speak and therefore think differently to other cultures because they have different words
    • Synthetic Personalisatio-n (Fairclough)
      • When the speaker acts as though they know everyone personally, even though they do not.
      • Very common in advertising and speeches.

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