Poverty and Unemployment

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  • Poverty and Unemployment
    • Why Are People Poor?
      • Jobs were insecure
      • Low pay and long hours
      • High rents
      • Illness, age or inability to work
      • Immigrants work cheaper than locals.
    • Support for the Poor
      • Workhouses
        • For those who couldn't afford to live
          • For the too old, too young and sick
            • Strict rules
              • Families split apart
              • Told what time to get up and sleep
      • Infirmary
        • At Buck's Row
          • Cared for the sick.
      • Casual Ward
        • At St Thomas' St there was a Casual Ward
          • Took 60 people
          • For those who didn't want to go into the Workhouse full time.
          • Had to work for your bed
            • Picking oakum
            • Cleaning
            • Cooking
      • Doss Houses
        • Otherwise known as lodging houses
          • These offered a bed on an 8 hour shift
            • Would cost 8 shillings for a double bed or 4 for s single.
              • For even less you could sleep stood up, hanging from a bit of rope.
      • The Peabody Estate
        • There was a rookery on Royal Mint Street
          • The rookery was bought up by the Government as a part of their Artisans Dwelling Act
            • But they couldn't sell the land commercially so it went to the Peabody Trust
              • They built 286 flats
                • They had good ventilation
                • They didn't put plaster on, so they had no lice.
                • Shared bathrooms and kitchens
                • Weekly rent started at 3 shilligs (15p) and was raised to 6 shillings (30p)
                  • The average weekly wage was for a labourer 22 shillings and 6 pence ( £1.12)
                  • Some poor families spent as much as a third of their weekly income on rent.
      • Banardos
        • Set up by Dr Thomas Barnardo
          • Jim Jarvis shwed him show street children were living on secret rooftops to avoid the Workhouse
            • He set up Barnardo's houses which helped street children.
    • Nature of Employment
      • Bell Foundary
        • A famous factory
          • Big Ben was cast here
      • Types of Jobs in Whitechapel
        • Tanneries
        • Tailors
        • Slaughter houses
        • Butchers
        • Dockyards
        • Railway Construction
        • Prostitution
      • Sweatshops
        • Usually contained trades such as tailors, shoe-makers and match makers.
          • wages were low
          • some slept on site
          • 20 hour days
          • small, cramped and dusty
          • little natural light
    • Conditions in Whitechapel
      • Rookeries
        • A rookery is a dense collection of housing, usually in a slum area.
          • Characterised by dirt, disease and crime
        • Flower and Dean St
          • 1971 Census
            • 31 doss houses
              • 902 lodgers.
                • Most were on the brink of starvation
          • very cramped
            • yards built over
              • Outside toilets
                • Pots and buckets as inside toilets often spilled
        • In 1877,one rookery contained 123 rooms, with lodging for 757 people.
      • Sanitation and Pollution
        • Flower and Dean St
          • 1971 Census
            • 31 doss houses
              • 902 lodgers.
                • Most were on the brink of starvation
          • very cramped
            • yards built over
              • Outside toilets
                • Pots and buckets as inside toilets often spilled
        • Little healthy drinking water.
          • Sewers ran into the streets
            • Smog could be blinding

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