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  • post - modernism
    • impact of globalisation on society:
      • religious beliefs spread across the globe
      • meyer et al. (2011) - growing religious diversity, religions not restricted by national boundries
      • globalisation = interconnectedness of societies
      • cultures and religions = closer contact due to media and movement of people
      • religions intertwined with local cultures
      • people aware of religions - internet
      • religions = transitional e.g. Islam
        • more Russian orthodox outside Russia than in
    • consequence of globalisation for religion:
      • Huntington: class of civilisations due to different lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Islamic fundamentalism = conflict with western civilisation - 9/11, London bombings
      • Kurtz: religion causing tensions between cultures. used to be based on skin colour
      • ben - nun - bloom et al: globalisation lead to declining levels of religious freedom e.g. burqa ban
    • rise of fundamentalism, cultural defence and cultural identity:
      • western society norms spreading has lead to traditional norms being threatened and therefore, religions attempting to build cultural defence and protecting to restore traditional values
      • singleton: dramatic rise of religious fundamentalism due to globalisation
      • spread of culture has lead to Christian and Islamic fundamentalists emerging as a form of cultural defence
    • global spiritual market:
      • identity due to things people buy and lifestyles built
      • DIY religion - mix it up - make up own religion to what suits you
    • impact on religion:
      • decline in traditional values
      • growth of new religious movements
      • post modernity = confusing world of many truths, fragmentation and flux
      • beck: risk society - terrorism
      • identities = malleable - choose who we want to be - class and gender not fixed
      • lyotard: decline of large metanarratives (large religions)
      • church = disengaged from society - loses its previous monopoly over religious truths
      • fundamentalism = seek return of traditional values
      • Holden: fundamentalism = reaction to post modernity - rise pf Jehovah's witnesses
    • criticisms:
      • Giddens: high modernity not in post yet
      • strong catholic societies = relatively high church attendance - religiosity = modern


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