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    • MLK formed Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
      • it ran conferences & trained civil rights activists in techniques of non-violent protest & how to handle police, law & media
    • Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
      • African-American & white American students set this up- they were deeply moved by civil rights movement & played a major role in it
    • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
      • civil rights activist, James Farmer, formed this
    • Sit-Ins
      • 1960, Greensboro, North Carolina- SNCC students began a campaign to end segregation in restaurants in the town
        • local branch of Woolworth's-  4 black students sat on whites only seats & refused to leave the lunch counter when they were refused service
          • the next day 23 more students did the same; the next day 66 students
          • within a week 400 African-American & white students were organising sit-ins at lunch counters in the town
      • with support from SNCC this non-violent tactic spread to other cities
      • by end of 1960 lunch counters had been desegregated in 126 cities
      • February 1960: Nashville, Tennessee, 500 students organised sit-ins in restaurants, libraries & churches
        • their college expelled them, but then backed down when 400 teachers threatened to resign if the students were expelled
        • the students were attacked & abused but eventually Mayor Ben West was convinced by their actions- by May 1960 the town had been desegregated
    • 'Freedom Rides'
      • May 1961. CORE activists began a protest called 'freedom rides'
        • freedom riders deliberately rode on buses in city of Birmingham, Alabama
          • they faced some of the worst violence of civil rights campaigns
        • SNCC took up freedom rides with the same violent reactions as CORE activists faced
        • 200 freedom riders were arrested & spent 40 days in jail
        • Governor of Alabama, John Patterson, did little to protect the riders until he was put under pressure from US President JFK
      • many states weren't obeying the order to desegregate bus services after Montgomery ruling
      • African Americans & their white supporters had shown that they were no longer prepared to be intimidated


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