Population

Overview of case studies and whole population topic completed 

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  • Created by: lucy
  • Created on: 04-01-13 10:58
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  • Population
    • Managing population
      • Transmigration in indonesia
      • china's one child policy
      • Australia's migration policy
      • Dependancy ratio
        • Ageing population = East Devon, UK
        • Youthful population = Uganda
      • Sweden encouraged larger familys
      • Ageing and youthful population
        • social impacts
        • Economic impacts
    • Demographic transition model
      • 5 stages
        • Stage 3 - late expanding
          • China
            • Reliant on exports
            • One Child policy to reduce population
        • Stage 2 - early expanding
          • Nepal
        • stage 4 - low fluctuating
          • UK
        • Stage 1 - high fluctuating
          • Tribes
            • Kayapo people on big bend of Xingu tributary of Amazon - Brazil
        • stage 5 - decline
          • Japan
            • More elderly than youths
      • Pros
        • easy to compare a country with the DTM
        • gives good generalised picture of how a population can change over time
        • can forecast how its population can change - allows for policies such as one child policy in china
      • Cons
        • extreme poverty and low levels of development may cause lack of popt growth and prevent LEDC's passing through stages
        • population in other countries may have different customs eg Catholicism
        • cant predict exactly when countries will reach each stage or how long it will last
        • doesn't take into account other factors eg education which effect BR
        • doesn't consider migration
        • original did not have a stage 5 - added when some moved out of stage 4
        • population control policies/civil war/infectious disease?
        • original data used was from an MEDC - may not be valid world wide
    • Urban and rural characteristics
      • Wealth
        • Inner city - Poorest sections of the urban population live here, more wealthy people live in redeveloped areas
          • wealth tends to increase as you move out of the city
            • Rural area - wealthiest residents who've moved out of the city and some less wealthy original residents
      • Age structure
        • Inner city - high proportion of young people
          • Suburbs - Mostly families with children
            • Rural/urban fringe - Mostly families with children, more elderly people.
              • Rural area - Higher proportion of elderly people
      • Employment
        • inner city - high proportion of students, unemployed and semi-skilled or unskilled workers where some professionals live in redeveloped areas
          • more employment in tertiary sector and skilled manual workers
            • proportion in tertiary sector increases
              • Rural areas - high proportion of workers in professional and managerial sectors and agricultural workers
      • Ethnicity
        • Inner city - High proportions of ethnic minoritys
          • Rural = majority white
          • Proportion decreases toward rural area
      • Provision of services
        • inner city - often an area of decay with derelict warehouse and industrial areas, close to city centre so has lots of services
          • suburbs - some local shopping parades, good transport to city centre and good availability  of transport
            • rural/urban fringe - location for out of town shopping centres, airports and recreational facilities such as golf
              • Rural areas - village shops may have closed as more residents shop in urban ares on commute to work and there is a lack of public transport.
      • Housing
        • Inner city - High density housing built in the 19th century and high-rise blocks of flats with some warehouses being redeveloped.
          • Suburbs - A mix of 20th century detached   and semi-detached housing with gardens, close to inner city = council owned property, further out = privately owned, larger housing with gardens and drives
            • Rural/urban fringe - low-density, high quality private housing.
              • Rural - Large, privately owned housing and new estates.
      • 6 factors affect welfare of people living in each zone
        • Social
          • crime rate is high in the inner city - unemployment  /poverty? poor relationships between police and community
          • tension between different ethnicities in inner city due to high proportion of ethnic minority and can occur in rural if to much migration
          • Rural areas  can also experience social problems eg lack of transport
        • environmental
          • Graffiti and vandalism = highest levels at derelict buildings and may be high in suburbs where larger popt = youths
          • old, poor quality housing in state of disrepair = poor living environment
          • air pollution is at its highest in inner city due to industrial sites and high volume of traffic
        • economic
          • poverty is highest in inner city = leads to higher DR and poorer health due to poorer nutrition, poor education and poor access to services
          • Industrial decline and lack of investment = unemployment and increasing unemployment due to agricultural decline
    • Population indicators
      • infant mortality rate
      • Death rate
      • fertility rate
      • Birth rate
      • Life expectancy
      • Migration rate
      • Natural increase
      • Population density
    • Population structure and migration
      • intermigration
      • Intramigration
      • Pull factors
      • Push factors

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