Population Change

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  • Population Change
    • Reasons for the distribution of global population
      • Climate
        • Sparsely populated areas: Extremely hot or cold climates
        • Densely populated areas: Temperate climates where the population can grow crops
      • Soil
        • Sparsely populated area: Infertile soils where crops cannot be grown
        • Densely populated areas: Fertile soils where crops are grown such as river valleys
      • History of settlement-resources
        • Sparsely populated areas: Few resources for industry such as the Sahel
        • Densely populated areas: Many resources for industry such as coal
    • Reasons for change to birth rate
      • Medical
        • Better access to health care including inoculations for childhood diseases has decreased death rate so fewer children are being born
      • Economic
        • Children cost a lot of money to feed and clothe. Hence fewer children are being born because couples prefer to provide more for one or two children.
      • Social
        • If women receive an education they become aware of ways to control fertility. It also increases their choices in life. This leads to a lower birth rate.
          • The average age of marriage in the UK has risen from 24 in 1960 to 30 in 2010.
      • Political
        • China has used policies to decrease its birth rate like the "One-Child policy" while Singapore has used incentives to increase its birth rate
    • Reasons for change to death rate
      • Medical
        • New treatments to beat cancer are being invented. People are also becoming more aware of the link between unhealthy living and early death. The death rate is falling in HICs.
      • Social
        • People now live in healthy conditions with sewage systems and tap water.
      • Political
        • Governments in LICs have invested money to provide the population with clean drinking water to lower the death rate.
      • Economic
        • Poverty affects the death rate in parts of the UK. Areas which have high levels of poverty have high death rates.
    • Population density in China
      • Human factors
        • The east of the country is densely populated. People live in coastal areas due to good trade links
        • The richer areas that have more industry have higher population densities. These areas are accessible with good communication links.
      • Physical factors
        • The west of the country is sparsely populated.
          • The Atai Mountains are too wet and cold to grow crops
          • The Gobi desert is too dry to grow crops and the climate is too hot
        • The east is densely populated people live on the fertile floodplains of the rivers such as the Yangtze.
    • Population density in the UK
      • Human factors
        • High population density in Abeerden due to oil industry in the North Sea
        • Densely populated area in South Wales- due to the range of resources available when the settlements first grew
        • The south east of England is a magnet for modern industries which attracts workers
        • Old industrial  areas of England have maintained high population densities because of the well established infrastructure
      • Physical factors
        • Sparsely populated in the Highlands of Scotland as the area is mountainous and too wet and cold to grow crops
        • Densely populated along the south coast, including towns such as Brighton- retired people move here because of the warmer climate than in other parts of the UK
        • Low densities in the rural areas of East Anglia. The area is very fertile and used for agriculture so is too valuable for urban growth.
        • Central Wales has a low density as it is cold,wet and hilly and very remote.
    • Case Study
      • China's one child policy
        • In 1979 a quarter of the world's population lived in China, with 66% being under 30. This meant that in the future the population would increase even more.
        • The government brought in the "one-child policy" which they hoped would promote economic growth and decrease the birth rate. Couples were only allowed to have one child and were given a "one-child certificate" which entitled them to incentives.
        • Incentives of the policy
          • Cash bonuses
          • Free education
          • Preferential housing arrangements
          • Longer maternity leave
          • Free medical care
          • Better child care
        • Disincentives of the policy
          • Couples are required to pledge that they would not have more children
          • If they had another child they would lose their privileges
          • People were monitored by the "granny police"
          • Received heavy fines
          • Each commune was only allowed a certain number of births
          • Sacked from their jobs
          • Women with unauthorized pregnancies were pressured to have abortions, and those with children were urged to use contraception or undergo sterilisation.
        • Birth rate fell from 34 per 1000 in 1970 to 13 per 1000 in 2008, and the annual population growth fell from 2.4% to 0.6%.
    • Case Study
      • Singapore's "three or more policy"
        • In the late 80's, the government of Singapore realised that the country's low birth rate would mean that they would not have enough workers due to the "Stop at two policy" introduced in the 60's
        • In 1987 the government introduced the "Three or more policy" to encourage people to have more children
        • Incentives of the policy
          • A cash gift of $3000 each for first two children
          • A cash gift of $6000 each for the third and fourth child
          • 3 months maternity leave for mothers
          • 3 days of paternity leave on the birth of first four children
          • Parents can buy large flats and priority for housing
          • 5 days of paid childcare leave a year
        • Disincentives of the policy
          • Couples with one or no children are not entitled to buy anything more than a three bedroom flat
          • No choice of schools for only one child so education may suffer
          • They don't receive financial packages from the government
    • Consequences of a youthful population
      • There will be a greater demand for health services and hospital care for babies and mothers
      • Great demand for education services
      • Less demand for pensions
      • There is a large workforce. There are many children to look after their parents in the future so less care needed for the elderly in the future.
    • Consequences of a ageing population
      • Greater need for care homes and specialist nursing for the elderly
      • There will be less money for education due to the demand for elderly services such as care homes
      • More houses will be needed because people are living longer
      • The pension age will increase from 65 to 68 in 2046.
      • The elderly work without pay in charity shops. The retired go on more holidays so there is more jobs in the leisure industry
    • Advantages and disadvantage s of an ageing population in Japan
      • Advantages
        • Retired people in Japan are spending more money on luxury goods. This will lead to greater employment and a growth economy
        • Many pensioners live on their own and so lead to a number of gadgets being invented, like an online kettle.
      • Disadvantages
        • The age of retirement in Japan is rising from 60 to 65 by 2030.
        • The number of people of working age is decreasing. The staff of the Tokyo subway are mainly pensioners. In 2025 there will be only 2 workers paying taxes to support the pensioners compared to nearly 6 workers in 1990.
        • There are more people living in nursing homes. A new health insurance scheme for the over 75s was introduced in 2008. It was nicknamed the "hurry up and die" scheme. After a patient had been in hospital for 100 days, the fees the hospital receives will go down.

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