Popular Culture

  • Created by: TaylorYS
  • Created on: 13-05-19 11:39
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  • Popular Culture
    • Urban and Rural Culture
      • Urban
        • Population Growth
        • Moving from Rural to Urban for employment
        • Festivals
          • Feast of Fools
            • Brought the classes together through the sharing of drinking culture/feasts
            • Safety Valve
              • Temporary appeasement to stem rebellion
          • Processions/Pageants to celebrate those high up in society (royalty/nobility)
        • The printing press was quicker to permeate urban culture
          • Literacy rates became higher in these areas
          • Books (both religious and non-religious) became easier to purchase
            • Easier spread of news/knowledge through broadsheets, letters and books
          • Supernatural and religious explanations for events became less common in urban areas, due to natural explanations becoming understood
      • Rural
        • 90% of the population lived in the countryside
        • Lower levels of literacy
          • Less access to books
            • Superstition was rife for longer in rural areas due to the lack of other explanations for events/knowledge
        • Less access to books
          • Superstition was rife for longer in rural areas due to the lack of other explanations for events/knowledge
        • Smaller, more local. gatherings
        • Festivals
          • Feast of Fools
            • Brought the classes together through the sharing of drinking culture/feasts
            • Safety Valve
              • Temporary appeasement to stem rebellion
          • Harvest Festival in particular was important in rural culture
            • Also religous festivals such as All Saints Day were popular
    • Elite Culture
      • The Nobles
        • Landowners, the wealthy, those with a role in central/local government
        • Royal Families at the top of society
        • Masques
          • Music, dancing, singing, acting
          • Political messages/themes
            • Often alienated/offended Puritans in England
            • Catherine de'Medici ordered that all nobles should hold a ball
      • The Learned Elites
        • University scholars and churchmen
          • 17th Century - the ideas of these two really began to conflict (Galileo)
          • 16th Century - Scholars had mostly broken free from religious influence
        • Masques
          • Music, dancing, singing, acting
          • Political messages/themes
            • Often alienated/offended Puritans in England
            • Catherine de'Medici ordered that all nobles should hold a ball
      • Withdrawal of the Elite
        • Reformation/Counter-Reformation focused on morality and godliness.
          • Festivals of misrule etc. were seen to promote disorder
            • Dangerous to the fabric of soceity
          • Marking of saints days was seen as superstitious and pagan
        • Godly reformers demanded a more learned clergy
          • Council of Trent demanded a better educated, higher status of priest
        • Nobility influenced by the Renaissance
          • Became more refined, withdrew from interaction with the peasants
    • Significance of Ritual
      • Christianity was perhaps the most consistent aspect of popular culture
        • Baptisms/weddings/funerals
        • Compulsory attendance to church on Sundays
        • Saints Days
    • Pageants and Festivals
      • Associated with ecclesiastical events or farming
        • Often put on by guilds, or rulers/lords
      • Opportunity for excess (often before periods of abstinence)
        • Carnival
          • Usually began Jan/Feb
          • All social classes enjoy the pleasures of flesh
            • Topsy-Turvy roles
      • Opposition
        • Came from the educated elites
        • Religious leaders opposed overindulgence and immorality
        • Potential for disruption and violence
          • May Day Riots London 1517
          • Anti-Catholic parades in Germany 1520s/1530s
      • Safety Valve
        • Reinforce existing order by allowing an escape from everyday life
        • Express resentment for authority without danger of rebellion
    • Public Humiliation
      • Punishment of Women
        • Challenge to the patriarchal society
          • Dissuaded others from challenging patriarchy
        • Punishment for scolding, adultery, and prostitution
        • Examples
          • England
            • Ducking Stool
            • Skimmingtons
            • Stocks
          • France
            • Chivavri
          • Germany
            • Whipping in the streets
          • Branding
          • Execution
    • Moral Regulation
      • Morals regulated by the Church (particularly puritans)
        • Catholic "Council of Trent" pushed for stricter controls on public behaviour
          • Wanted to limit Saints Day celebrations as they were 'being exploited'
        • Protestants attacked festivals as pagan/Catholic/distracting
      • 1540-1660 'Crisis of Order' in England
        • Gambling, prostitution, drunkenness on the up
        • Peasant revolts and high murder rates
    • Magic in Society
      • Black Magic
        • Magic that caused harm
          • Particular concern in rural areas due to reliance on crops
          • Maleficium
            • 'Diabolical pact with the devil' became a common explanation in the 16th/17th centuries
              • Accepted as part of popular culture
      • White Magic
        • Cunning Folk
          • Produced good spirits for recovery/protection from evil spirits
          • Older, single women usually
      • Superstition
        • Rife due to a lack of education
        • Used as an explanation for periods of upheaval
      • The Church
        • Offered protection against evil through rituals
    • Challenges to Popular Culture
      • Printing Press
        • Invented in the 1440s
          • By 1500, over 1000 printing shops in Europe
            • Tens of thousands of titles had been published by the 1700s
              • A fine library was a status symbol in the 15th century
              • Textbooks, histories, poetry etc.
              • Pamphlets, religious tracts and ballads
                • Newspapers began to appear in the 17th Century
            • Woodcuts made print more accessible to unlearned readers
        • Print Revolution
          • For
            • Increased European global output of texts (lower cost)
              • As books became cheaper, education became more accessible, vast increase in number of schools
            • Intrinsic to the reformation through religious pamphlets
              • Particularly undermined the catholic church in Germany, Switzerland, and Netherlands
            • Allowed radical political movements
            • A third of Englishmen were literate by 1630
              • Print became a form of entertainment, as well as education
          • Against
            • Scribal production was not suddenly replaced by printing, still flourishing until the late 17th Century
            • Literacy rates improved slowly, especially in Southern Europe, amongst women, and rural areas
            • Often, printing helped to reinforce government of religion rather than undermine it
      • Religious Change
        • Protestant Change
          • Aim to create a godly society
            • Values of decency, diligence, gravity, modesty, orderliness, sobriety
          • Believed festivals were acts of popery
            • Attacked all holy days other than Sundays
          • Differences
            • Lutherans/Anglicans
              • More tolerant of popular culture
            • Calvinists
              • Sought the end of traditional popular culture
                • Critical of plays and performances
              • Made the bible available to ordinary people; put on sermons; sung psalms
            • Puritans
              • Despised and forbade profane culture
                • People often went against the abolishment of festivals by making new ones
        • Counter-Reformation
          • Council of Trent
            • Reform aimed to purify the church
              • Religious ceremonies under new regulations
              • Feast of Fools came to an end without the support of the Elite
              • Dances/fairs forbidden on church grounds
          • Fighting against immorality and superstition
            • Wanted reform for festivals, not abolishment
          • Fighting against protestantism
            • Used ritual to convince people of the wrongness of Protestantism
      • Political Change
        • Rebellions and Civil Wars were common across Europe
        • Flood of political pamphlets in the 1640s, encouraged spread of new political ideas
        • Spread of political consciousness
        • Traditional secular elites generally retained power
          • Governments often aligned with churches to create a godly state
            • Quasi-Ecclesiastical states such as Bamberg
      • Economic/Social Change
        • Huge population growth between 1500 and 1800
        • Urbanisation
        • Subsistence farming became farming for the ubran market
        • Communications and trade expanded
        • By 1800 people were generally more well off and healthy
        • Groups began to adapt to new economical situations
          • Businessmen began to see leisure activities as a good investment

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