Pop. & The Environment: People & The Environment

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  • People & The Environment
    • Density
      • Population divided by size of area
        • Number of people per square km
      • Bangladesh = 1200 people per square km
      • Libya = 4 people per square km
      • High pop. density = between 20 degrees north & 60 degrees north
      • Highest pop. density = South and East Asia
      • Varies within a country
    • Distribution
      • Pattern of where people live
      • Some = favourable conditionse,g. coastal plains
      • Some =  unfavourable conditions e.g. glaciers
      • China = unevenly distributed- 94% in eastern part, 6% in western part (mountains, desert)
    • Global Population Growth
      • 1804 = 1 bil
        • Famine, disease, war prevented growth
      • Until 1950 pop. growth limited to developed countries
      • 19th Century = North America, West Europe = grew rapidly
        • Improvements in meds, food = increased life expectancy & reduced infant mortality rates
          • E.g. England & Wales 1801 = 9.4mil, 1901 = 32.5mil
            • During same time developing countries = stable = infant & maternal mortality rates high & famine was common
      • Since 1950 pop. increased rapidly - 1950 = 2.5 bil, 2017 = 7.5 bil
        • Predicted 9 bil 2050
      • Develoing countries increased life expectancy, decreasing death rates = Growth since 1950
      • Some countries = pop. decline
        • E.g. Ukraine death rate = higher than birth rate, but, global pop. still increasing
      • Urban pop. increasing faster than rural
        • Becoming less evenly disrtibuted- high density in cities
    • How physical environment affects population
      • Climate
        • Few people live in dry areas e.g. Sahara desert
        • Many live in temperate areas e.g. UK
        • Tropical & temperate = large pop. & high pop. density because its easier to produce food
        • Climate change = sea level rise = people move inland = distribution change
          • Climate change also causing nutrition levels to fall in developing countries
      • Soils
        • Fertility determines food type & amount produced
        • Determined where settlements developed & size of populations
          • E.g. cities, Naples, built near volcanoes = high soil fertility
        • Bangladesh = large floodplains = fertile
          • Supports  large scale agriculture= feeds large pop.
        • Soil erosion = migration as agriculture becomes more difficult
      • Resource distribution
        • Pop. growth & distribution linked to water & resources availability
          • E.g. desert = small pop. because lack of water
        • Lack of safe water, food insecurity, health problems & death = pop. decrease
        • Places w/ natural resource e.g. food & fuel = large populations
        • Energy & mineral resources cause local concentrations of people
    • Development processes affect pop. change
      • Neolithic revolution
        • 12,000 y/a devleoped agriculture
          • E.g. West Asia, East China
        • Lifestyle change from hunter gatherer to farming - permanent settlements
        • Pop. increase as food supply more reliable
      • Industrial Revolution
        • 1760-1850 increase in machinery factories
        • Major pop. growth e.g. Britain more than doubled
        • Death rate fell because more food & money = better Diest
        • Farming = less labour intensive = people move to cities = more concentrated populations

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