Polysaccharides

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  • Polysaccharides
    • Starch
      • Function= plant storage polysaccharide.
      • Amylose:- made of alpha glucose molecules bound together bt 1-4 glycosidic bonds. Helix shape with weak hydrogen bonds.
      • Amylopectin:- made of alpha glucose molecules bound together by 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds. Compact but branched structure.
      • Both amylose and amylopectin are broken down by amylase into maltose (amylopectin is broken down quicker because it has more ends).
    • Glycogen
      • Function=animal storage polysaccharide mainly in muscle and liver cells.
      • Similar in structure to amylopectin but it has more 1-6 glycosidic bonds and so forms more branches.
      • Can be hydrolysed to glucose by glycogen phosphorylase very quickily.
    • Cellulose
      • Function=structural moleculeforming strong, rigid fibres of plant cell walls.
      • Made of B-glucose.
      • To form 1-4 glycosidic bonds, every other glucose molecule is inverted-this forms a straight chain.
      • Loads of straight chains:- large number of hydrogen bonds gives the fibres strength.
      • Broken down by cellulase. The microfibrils are bonded together, very strong and rigid for plant cell walls-for turgidness.
  • Enables their functions: Compact structure, Insoluble in water, branched structure-hydolyses quicker.
    • Starch
      • Function= plant storage polysaccharide.
      • Amylose:- made of alpha glucose molecules bound together bt 1-4 glycosidic bonds. Helix shape with weak hydrogen bonds.
      • Amylopectin:- made of alpha glucose molecules bound together by 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds. Compact but branched structure.
      • Both amylose and amylopectin are broken down by amylase into maltose (amylopectin is broken down quicker because it has more ends).
    • Glycogen
      • Function=animal storage polysaccharide mainly in muscle and liver cells.
      • Similar in structure to amylopectin but it has more 1-6 glycosidic bonds and so forms more branches.
      • Can be hydrolysed to glucose by glycogen phosphorylase very quickily.

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