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  • Polymers
    • Polymers = A substance made up from very large molecules made up of many repeating units
    • Monomers =  small reactive molecules that react  together in repeating sequences to form a very large molecule
    • Plastics are made of very large, covalently bonded molecules called polymers
    • The Large polymer molecules are made when many small monomers join together
    • The reaction between Alkene monomers to form a polymer is called addition polymerisation
    • In addition polymers, the repeating unit has the same atoms as the monomers, because when the C=C bond opens up in polymerisation no other molecule is formed in the reaction
    • Condensation Polymerisation usually involves a small molecule released in the reaction as the polymer forms
    • The monomers used to make the simplest condensation polymers are usually two different monomers, with two of the same functional groups on each monomers
    • Polyesters are formed from the condensation polymerisation of a diol and dicarboxylic acid, with H20 given off in the reaction
    • Simple carbohydrates(monosaccharides)  polymerise to make polymers such as starch and cellulose
    • Proteins are polymers made from different amino acid monomers
    • Amino acids have an acidic and a basic functional group in the same molecule
    • Amino acids react together during condensation polymerisation to make polypeptides and proteins mad of long sequences of different monomers
    • Thermosoftening polymers = Polymer that forms plastics which can be softened by heating
    • Monomers affect the properties of the polymers they produce
    • Thermosetting polymers = Polymer that can form extensive cross - linking between chains, resulting in in rigid materials that are heat resistant
    • Changing reaction conditions can also change the properties of t he polymer that is produced


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