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  • Polymers
    • Additional polymerisation
      • Plastics are made up of very large molecules called Polymers. Polymers are made from many molecules joined together. The reaction to make a polymer is called polymersation
      • In addition polymersation an addition polymer is formed when thousands of alkene molecules join together. The double covalent bond between 2 carbon atoms in each molecule 'opens up' and becomes a single carbon-carbon covalent bond between the 2 carbon atoms
    • Condensation Polymersation
      • In addition polymersation only one product is formed. In condensation polymersation there are 2 different products. The main product is the polymer but you also get a small molecule, usually water, given off
      • In addition polymersation the monomers are usually the same alkene containing C=C bonds. In condensation polymersation there are often 2 different momomers used. Each monomer has a functional group at both ends of its molecule. The functional groups on the 2 different monomers react together to form a long polymer chain
      • A polyester is made from a diol (an alcohol containing two-OH groups) and a dicarboxylic acid (a carboxylic acid containing 2-COOH groups. The polymers link together and polymerise by 'ester links'. A water molecule is given off as a each link is made in the reaction
    • Natural Polymers
      • There are naturally occurring polymers such as starch, cellulose and protein found in living things
      • The most commonly known sugar is glucose, C6H12O6. Glucose is a mono-saccharide. Mono-saccharide sugars can act as a monomer to make polymers called Poly-saccharides
    • DNA
      • DNA (deoxy-ribonucleic acid) is a natural polymer that is essential for life. DNA structure contains a genetic code that allows living organisms and viruses to develop and function


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