Polymer Revolution

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • POLYMER REVOLUTION
    • Mass Spectroscopy
      • Sample Inlet
        • Vaporise in the vaccum
      • Ionisation
        • Bombarded with electrons to create positive cations
      • Acceleration
        • Electric field gives the ions the same kinetic energy
      • Drift Region
        • Larger ions accelerate less
      • Detector
        • Show  the masses and relative abundance
      • The molecular ion (largest) gives you the original molecule
      • The base peak shows the most abundant ion and is at 100%
      • Isotope peaks
        • this shows the abundance of istopes
    • Hydrogen Bonding
      • Electrostatic force between oxygen and hydrogen lone pairs
      • Occurs in water bc of the large uneven charge distrobution
      • Hydrogen Bonding Requirements
        • H atom made partially positive by a highly elecn atom (O,F,N)
        • A lone pair of electrons on a O, F, N
        • Small Molecule
      • More hydrogen bonds, more viscous and a higher boiling point
    • Alkene
      • Unsaturated
      • Weak double bond
      • Lower boiling point than alkane
      • Test
        • React with Br2 and it should go from red/brown to colourless
        • Br atoms bond to the C=C double bond
      • 120 bond angle, three areas of elect density, trigonal planar
    • Electrophilic Addition
      • Mechanism
        • Curly arrow- movement of pairs of electrons
      • Electrophile-  positive molecule attracted to a negative region
      • Nucleophile-  a negatively charged molecule with a spare lone pair
      • Addition Reaction- smaller molecules form a  larger molecule
      • Br2 (s)
        • 1,2 - dibromoethane
        • Room T + P
      • HBr (aq)
        • Bromoethane
        • Room T + P
        • HBr in a polar solvent
      • H20 (l)
        • Ethanol
        • Room T + P
          • Concentrated H2SO4
        • High T + P
          • Phosphoric acid and Silica
      • H2 (g)
        • Ethane
        • Room T + P
          • Platinum
        • High T + P
          • Nickel
    • E/Z Isomers
      • Conditions
        • Lack of free rotation (double bond)
        • Each of the carbon atoms must have to groups
      • E- different side
      • Z- same side
      • E iisomers have a lower boiling point bc the pd is cancelled out out
    • Alcohols
      • Primary- the OH carbon is bonded to 2 hydrogens
      • Secondary- the OH carbon is bonded to 1 hydrogen
      • Tertiary- the OH carbon is bonded to no hydrogen
      • Oxidation
        • p--->a-->ca      s-->k            t-->x
        • Ketone
        • Aldehydes
        • Carboxylic Acids
        • Catalyst- Acidifiied Potassium Dichromate
      • Alcohol molecules are polar bc of the polarised OH bond
      • Dehydration
        • Alcohol vapour passed over a hot alumina catalyst
        • Loss of water molecule
        • Becomes an alkene
        • Elimination Reaction - loss of a smaller molecule
    • Thermoplastic Thermoset
      • Thermoplastic- no cross links. Can be moulded and set when heated
      • Thermosets- covalent cross links and so it doesn't move when heated
    • Dipole Bonding
      • Dipole- a molecule/ part of a molecule with a partial positive and negative charge
      • Id-Id
        • This occurs when a molecule doesn't have an uneven charge
        • There is still an attraction bc it depends on where the electrons are situated
        • More electrons, more polarised, stronger bond
        • More energy required to break Pd than Id
      • Pd- Pd
        • This is when a molecule has atoms with uneven elecn
    • Electronegativity
      • The relative ability of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a  covalent bond
      • x has a higher elecn than y so it pulls the electron pair closer to itself
      • Elecn depends on
        • Amount of electrons
        • Amount of electron shields
          • Decreases as you move down a group
        • Distance from/size of nucleus
          • Decreases as you move down a group
          • Increases as you move across a period
    • Polymers
      • Made up of many monomers
        • A-A or A-B
        • Monomers usually contain double bonds
      • Chain Length
      • Branching
      • Stereoregularity
      • Chain Flexibility
      • Cross Linking
  • Polymers
    • Made up of many monomers
      • A-A or A-B
      • Monomers usually contain double bonds
    • Chain Length
    • Branching
    • Stereoregularity
    • Chain Flexibility
    • Cross Linking

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Spectroscopy resources »