Pollution L10 - Pesticide Pollution

  • Created by: Hadley023
  • Created on: 20-03-19 13:15
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  • Different groups of insecticides
    • Organo-chlorides
      • Effects
        • High toxicity to insects - killed many non-target species.
        • High persistence and liposolubility allowed DDT to bio-accumulated and bio-magnify.
        • DDT remained in the environment for decades.
        • High mammal toxicity means farm workers are at risk.
        • Chronic exposure to low doses is also associated with impaired memory, depression, behavioural changes, ADHD and Alzheimer's.
        • Some are suspected carcinogens.
      • Mode of action
        • Opens sodium gates in the nerve cells so that the nerve keeps firing
      • Properties
        • High insect toxicity
        • Low mammal toxicity
        • Persistent and liposoluble
        • Low water solubility
    • Pyrethroids
      • Effects
        • Still kills non-target species e.g. bees and butterflies
        • Toxic to fish - so should not be used near rivers
      • Mode of action
        • Similar to DDT (organo-chloride)
      • Properties
        • Not persistent or liposoluble
        • Low mammal toxicity
      • Synthetic insecticide developed from natural pyrethrin insecticide extracted from plants
    • Neo-nicotinoids
      • Effects
        • Very toxic to bees
        • Synergistic action with some fungicides
        • Toxic effects most likely when they are sprayed onto the crop or when neo-nicotinoid dust is carried by the wind
      • Mode of action
        • Neurotoxins, inhibiting the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
      • Most widely used insecticides and are chemically similar to nicotine
      • High insect toxicity but low invertebrate toxicity as they cannot cross the blood-brain barrier
      • Relatively persistent and lipsoluble

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