USSR Political Intolerance

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  • Political Intolerance
    • Purges
      • Stage One: Known Opponents
        • Arrested Zinoviev and Kamenev, after 18 months executed.
        • Trotsky was assasssinatedin Mexico 1940 by Stalin's agent.
        • Took revenge on members of 17th Party Congress. Which had preferred Kirov.
          • 98/139 members of Central Committee at the Congress were executed.
          • 1108/1996 delegates in attendance were also executed.
      • Stage Two: Widespread purges
        • Regional Communist parties purged.
          • In Georgia between 1936-38 30,000 officials arrested and 10,000 executed.
          • All Ukrainian Politburo members were arrested.
        • Armed forces purged.
          • Around 1/2 Officer Corps arrested, 5000 executed. (30,000 released following the Winter War with Finland).
          • 3/5th's of Soviet Marshals executed.
        • KGB admits to deaths of around 680,000 political prisoners.
        • Roughly 1/3 Leningrad citizens were arrested.
        • 1/18 of the total population arrested overall.
        • By 1941, the Gulags contained around 8 million prisoners serving an average of 10 years with high mortality rate.
      • Great Purges 1936-38.
    • Why it started.
      • Used murder of Kirov to issue Emergency Decree against Terrorism
        • Gave NKVD power to arrest, question torture and execute without trial of anyone suspected of terrorist activities.
      • Lenin removed alternative ideas within the party: Decree Against Factionalism.


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