Polar molecules

  • Created by: Jasmin
  • Created on: 22-01-14 09:26
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  • Polar molecules
    • Molecule contianing polar bonds is usually polar, but sometimes the net effect of polar bonds cancel out
    • E.g. Cl4 (tetrachloromethane) contains 4 Cl-Cl polar bonds but the 4 polar bonds are symmetrically arranged, so the molecule has no net dipole, so it is not polar
    • In a simple molecule e.g. HCl polar bond gives the whole molecule a permanent dipole - polar molecule
    • If all the polar bonds are point in roughly the same direction, teh molecule will be polar
    • Lone pairs of electrons have an effect on the overall polarity and may cancel out the dipole created
    • Bond Length
      • Distance between the 2 nuclei is the distance where the attractive and repulsive forces balance each other
      • Stronger the attraction between teh atoms, the higher the bond enthalpy and the shorter the bond length
    • Intermediate bonding
      • Polarisation of ions leads to distorted ionic bonds
      • If the polarisation is large, the electron density is distorted so much that the ionic bond resembles a covalent bond
    • A polar bond is the bond that is likely to break


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