PM2B In-Class Test Revison

  • Created by: odionj01
  • Created on: 13-03-20 10:53
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  • PM2: Med Design
    • Therapeutic Index: Measurement of the safety of a drug (lethal dose for 50% of the population divided by effective dose for 50%)
    • Definitions
      • Bioavailability:The fraction (F) of an orally administered  dose that reaches systemic circulation.
      • pKa: A measure of how strong or weak an acid FG within a molecule is.
        • pKa= -log(Ka)
        • The lower the pKa value indicates a stronger acid. Thus, would be fully ionised
          • Only unionised drug molecules are able to cross plasma membranes
      • LogP:  The log of the partition coefficient of octane/water.
        • P: The Partition coefficient measures the partitioning of API  between octanol phase and water phase.
          • Octanol phase= hydrophobic/lipophili. More positive value= likes lipid environment
          • Water phase=hydrophilic. More negative value= likes aqueous environment.
          • P= [organic]/[aqueous]
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          • LogP=0means that there is equal partition between octanol and water
      • Vd: The volume that would contain the total body content of the drug (Q) at the concentration equal to that present in the plasma (Cp).
        • Vd= Q/Cp
      • Half-life: The   time it takes for drug  from maximum concentration (Cmax) to reach half the maximum concentration in the body.
        • The longer the half-life, the longer the drug will last in the body after dosing is discontinued.
    • Bioavailability
      • For a drug to reach systemic circulation (lumen of small intestine). It must penetrate local barriers and experience first pass metabolism.
      • The fraction (F) of orally administered dose is calculated by by a plasma concentration time curve
        • The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) are used to estimate F.
          • F= AUC oral/AUC intravenous
      • The  fraction absorbed following intravenous admin. is 1(100%)
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