philosophy- plato

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  • plato's view of what being a human was
    • we have bodies with physical sense and these experiences physical things
      • what plato has done
        • physical experiences things we encounter in the physical world
        • non-physical ideas tat exist in the mind
        • plato has divided them up into two different categories which are separate. he said the one of them has access to true knowledge and the other one odes no, it can only form opinions.
          • criticism of plato
            • philosophers cant even agree with each other
            • we cab have knowledge of physical world (science)
            • difficultly proving the non-physical
        • this division of the physical and no physical part of us is called 'dualism'
          • the sophists
            • another group of philosophers in Athens at the same time as Socrates/ Plato
            • they were relativists and taught that there was no such thing as absolute and ultimate truth, only opinions
            • plato believed that this is attitude would lead to moral corruption
        • 'you cannot step in the same river twice' Heraclitus
        • we cannot have knowledge of physical things, only opinions
      • what are 'forms'?
        • plato believed that the reason that we can recognise lots of circular objects as circles is because the perfect fixed idea of circle actually exists. the particular circles all share in the essence of this form of circle
          • the world of forms contains eternal, perfect forms (archetypes, ideals, ideas) that everything in the physical world is based upon
            • everything in the world of appearances are imperfect copies of these forms. they only 'participate' in the forms
              • plato's argument for the existence of forms
                • plato showed that an uneducated slave boy could solve a geometry problem without being taught how
                • this shows evidence of innate knowledge that must have existed apriori
                • plato called the process of humans recollecting knowledge 'amamnesis' he thought that it was rational philosophy could under cover this knowledge
        • we recognise the idea that exists not the actual thing.
          • plato is concerned with understanding beauty, justice and goodness
            • it is only the philosopher through rational thought who can each knowledge of the forms
    • these decay and fade away. These things cannot be true reality, since truth is eternal
    • it is through rational thought and ideas in the mind that we can gain knowledge
    • there is a soul that is separate from the body and this is the external part of the humans and can exsit independently of the body


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