plate tectonics

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  • Created by: Jess4989
  • Created on: 08-04-18 13:07
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  • Plate tectonics
    • Plate Boundries
      • Constructive (Hawaii and Iceland)
        • New crust is  generated as the plates PULL AWAY from each other.
          • An ocean ridge is formed, with volcanic islands.
      • Destructive (The Alps)
        • Crust is destroyed as one plate DIVES UNDER another
          • Subduction zone, oceanic plate destroyed under continental plate and hot mantle magma floats up through weaknesses creating volcanoes. Deep sea trench is formed.
        • When to continental plates move towards each other creating fold mountains
      • Conservative (San Andres Fault)
        • Crust is neither produced nor destroyed as the plates slide horizontally past each other.
          • Transform fault, earthquakes occur here. A fault line (San Andreas fault line)
      • Eurasian Plate, Pacific Plate, Nazca Plate, South American Plate, North America, Arabian Plate, Indian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate.
    • Volcanoes
      • Composite Volcanoes
        • -Steep sides, cone shape   -Layer of acid lava, high in silica content and layers of ash                -A vent and crafter and magma chamber                 -Very viscous  therefore moves slowly      -Lava may cool within the vent therefore pressure builds up behind the plug causing a violent explosive eruption        DESTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARIES
      • Shield Volcanoes
        • -Gentle sloping sides, wide base     -Basic lava, low in silica content         -Lava is thin and runny, lava moves quickly          -Vent and crafter, magma chamber        -Frequent non-violent, quite eruptions        CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARIES (near ocean ridges)
      • Mount Sinabung, Indonesia
        • -2nd  February 2014             -Grey ash, lava, rock, toxic gases       -75,000 evacuated, stress and anxiety          -Ruining farms, villages covered in grey thick ash. Subsistence farmers         -Lost tourism, avalanches of mud              -CO2, SO2, NOX, produced green house gasses
    • Earthquakes  (Haiti)
      • -17th of January at 4:55pm               -7.0  on the richter scale                                      -epicentre 16 miles west of capital Port au Prince       -Densley populated population of 2 million.         -220,000 killed             -Dirty water causing cholera
      • Primary effects
        • -Damaged communications                -Powerlines destroyed         -Falling debris             -Shock and panic             -Land slides, broken gas pipes
      • Secondary effects
        • -Famine         -Water supply           -Homelessness                    -Fires, diseases, Tsunamis        -Destroyed ports, ships sunk
      • Reducing effects of an earthquake
        • PREPARATION                   Training people, Earthquake proof buildings,Kits
        • PREDICTION seismograph,watching animal behaviour (frogs, birds)
        • PROTECTION                   Buildings which absorb shocks, centre of mass, materials that don't break
    • Earthquakes
      • Friction stops the plates moving past each other, A critical point is reached where this stress energy is released and the plates snap past each other. Primary waves travel first causing longitudinal movement, then transverse waves move the ground side to side

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