Plants and plant hormones

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  • PLANTS
    • TROPISMS
      • There are four main types of tropisms:
        • Phototropism is when shoots grow towards the light which enables them to photosynthesise.
        • Chemotropism is when the pollen tubes on a flower grow down towards the ovary where fertilisation takes place.
        • Thigmotropism is where shoots of climbing plants wind around other plants or solid structures for support.
      • Geotropism is where roots grow towards the pull of gravity to anchor them in to the soil and take up water.
      • A directional growth response in which the direction of the response is determined by the direction of the external stimulus.
    • HORMONES
      • Auxins
        • Promote cell elongation; inhibit growth of side shoots; inhibit leaf abscission.
      • Gibberellins
        • Promote seed germination and growth of stems.
      • Cytokinins
        • Promote cell division.
      • Ethene
        • Promotes fruit ripening.
      • Abscisic Acid
        • Inhibits seed germination and growthy; causes stomatal closure when there is low water availability.
    • MERISTEMS
      • Apical
        • Found at the tips or apices of roots or shoots- responsible for growth of these areas.
      • Lateral Bud
        • Found in the buds. Could give rise to side shoots.
      • Lateral
        • Found in a cylinder near the outside of roots and shoots and are responsible for these getting wider.
      • Intercalary
        • Located between nodes. Growth between nodes are responsible for the shoots getting longer.

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