Plant Oils

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  • Plant Oils
    • Extraction
      • Fruits, seeds and nuts can contain lots of oils
      • 1:The plant material is crushed
      • 2: the crushed material is pressed between metal plates to squash the oil out
      • 3: The oils can be separated from the plant materials in a centrifuge
      • Alternatively, solvents can be used to separate the oil from plant materials
      • The oils can be distilled, to remove impuritiies and refine the oil
    • Uses / Properties
      • They're often used in food
      • Have high energy content so they provide us with lots of energy
      • Contain lots of nutrients
      • Contain essential fatty acids that the body needs
      • Higher boiling points than water so can cook foods at higher temperatures and faster speeds
      • Oil can carry flavours in food, making it seen more intense
    • Unsaturated / Unsaturated
      • Unsaturated oils contain c=c double bonds
      • Monounsaturated oils contain one c=c bond
      • Polyunsaturated oils contain more than one c=c bond
      • Unsaturated oils decolourise bromine water, because the bromine opens up the double bond,
      • When unsaturated oils are hydrogenated they're hardened
      • Unsaturated oils are hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at 60°
      • In hydrogenation the hydrogen reacts with the double bonded carbons and opens up the double bond
      • Hydrogenated oils are solid at room temperature because they have higher melting points than normal oils
      • Saturated fats are less healthy than unsaturated fats

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