Plant cells and carbohydrates

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 15-03-14 20:16
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  • Plant cells and Carbohydrates
    • Structure
      • Cell wall
      • Large vacuole
      • Golgi apparatus
      • Chloroplast
      • Mitochondria
      • Cytoplasm
      • Starch grain
      • Ribosome
      • SER
      • RER
      • Nucleus
    • Chloroplast
      • Granum
        • Stack of thylakoid membranes
      • Thylakoid
        • Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
      • Stroma
        • Fluid filled matrix some photosynthesis occurs here
      • Starch grains
        • energy storage molecule
      • DNA and ribosomes
        • To make enzymes for photosynthesis
    • Cell wall
      • Strong(hydrogen bonding) to resist stretching and tearing
      • Permeable to most molecules
      • Adjacent walls separated by lamella
      • Plasmodesmata are gaps in the membrane
    • Cellulose
      • Long straight chains of beta glucose joined by hydrogen bonds
        • Every other beta glucose rotates 180 to allow the OH groups to form glycosidic bonds
      • Several chains joined together in layers by hydrogen bonds
        • Hundreds of these chains form microfibrils
      • Microfibrils form hydrogen bonds with other microfibrils
        • Cellulose fibre
    • Starch
      • Coiled so compact
      • Insoluble so doesn't affect Water potential
      • Large molecule so doesn't leave cell
      • Amylose is unbranched
      • Amylopectin branched
    • Glycogen
      • Shorter chains
        • Highly branched
          • Larger surface area
            • More rapid hydrolysis
      • Animal starch
  • Chloroplast
    • Granum
      • Stack of thylakoid membranes
    • Thylakoid
      • Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
    • Stroma
      • Fluid filled matrix some photosynthesis occurs here
    • Starch grains
      • energy storage molecule
    • DNA and ribosomes
      • To make enzymes for photosynthesis

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