Plant cells

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 08-03-14 21:21
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  • Plant cells
    • Structure
      • Ribosomes
      • Large vacuole
      • Smooth ER
      • Rough ER
      • Starch grain
      • Cytoplasm
      • Mitochondria
      • Chloroplasts
      • Cell wall
      • Cell membrane
    • Chloroplasts
      • Granum
        • Stack of thylakoids
      • Thylakoid membrane
        • Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
      • Stroma
        • Fluid filled matrix (some photosynthesis)
      • Starch grains
        • Energy storage (polysaccharide)
      • DNA and ribosomes
        • to make enzymes for photosynthesis
    • Cell wall
      • Very strong so can resist stretching and tearing due to osmotic pressure
      • Permeable to most molecules
      • Adjacent cell walls separated by lamella
      • Plasmodesmata allow material to pass between cells
    • Adaption of plant cells
      • Root hair cell
        • No chloroplasts
        • Extension projecting into soil
          • Increased surface area for absorption
      • Xylem
        • Arranged in collumns
        • Walls lignified (strength and waterproofing)
    • Alpha glucose
      • Starch
        • Amylose
          • Coiled so compact
          • Insoluble so doesn't affect water potential
          • Large molecules so doesn't leave cell
        • Amylopectin
          • Has branches so increased surface area, hydrolyzed faster
        • Does not diffuse in and out of cells
        • Does not effect osmosis
      • Glycogen
        • Shorter chains, highly branched, increased surface area
        • More readily hydrolyzed which animals require more
    • Beta glucose
      • Cellulose
        • Long straight chains
          • Joined by hydrogen bonds
            • Form microfibrills
              • Provide rigidity
        • Cell wall
      • every other beta glucose rotates 180 for OH  Groups line up
  • Large molecules so doesn't leave cell

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