Plants

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  • Plant Physiology
    • Photosynthesis
      • Process by which plants make food
        • Light energy is converted to chemical energy
      • Equation
        • Carbon dioxide + water (along with sunlight and chlorophyll) goes to glucose and oxygen
        • 6C02 + 6H2O ---- C6H12O6
      • Rate of Photosynthesis
        • Effects
          • Carbon dioxide concentration
          • Light intensity
          • Temperature
      • Respiration
        • Plants use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide during respiration
        • Use Carbon Dioxide and produce Oxygen as a waste product
          • Photosynthesis
            • Process by which plants make food
              • Light energy is converted to chemical energy
            • Equation
              • Carbon dioxide + water (along with sunlight and chlorophyll) goes to glucose and oxygen
              • 6C02 + 6H2O ---- C6H12O6
            • Rate of Photosynthesis
              • Effects
                • Carbon dioxide concentration
                • Light intensity
                • Temperature
            • Respiration
              • Plants use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide during respiration
              • Use Carbon Dioxide and produce Oxygen as a waste product
                • Plants respire all the time, using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide
              • Experiments
                • During an experiment, you'll know if any starch is produced it is the result of photosynthesis
                • To demonstrate starch is in the leaf
                  • Kill the leaf in boiling water
                • Presence of Oxygen
                  • Use an aquatic plant, e.g. Canadian pondweed, in bright light
                    • Capture the gas produced
                      • Analyse it to show the raised oxygen levels
                        • Alternatively, count the number of gas bubbles given off
                • Necessity of Chlorophyll
                  • Use a variegated (green and water) leaf
                    • Of limited use because the products of photosynthesis could've been moved from one part of the leaf to another
          • Plants respire all the time, using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide
        • Experiments
          • During an experiment, you'll know if any starch is produced it is the result of photosynthesis
          • To demonstrate starch is in the leaf
            • Kill the leaf in boiling water
          • Presence of Oxygen
            • Use an aquatic plant, e.g. Canadian pondweed, in bright light
              • Capture the gas produced
                • Analyse it to show the raised oxygen levels
                  • Alternatively, count the number of gas bubbles given off
          • Necessity of Chlorophyll
            • Use a variegated (green and water) leaf
              • Of limited use because the products of photosynthesis could've been moved from one part of the leaf to another
      • Structure of a leaf
        • Adaptations
          • Chloroplasts
            • Contains Chlorophyll which helps the plant absorb light energy
            • Stomata
              • Pores which allow gases to enter and exit the plant
          • Surface area
            • For diffusion of gases
            • Thin and flat so as much light can be absorbed
          • Two outer layers
            • The upper and lower epidermis have few chloroplasts and are covered by the cuticle
              • Reduces water loss by evaporation and acts as a barrier to the entry of disease-causing micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi
            • The lower epidermis have many pores called stomata: they allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf, allow oxygen and water vapour to diffuse out.
          • Xylem and Phloem
            • The xylem carries water and mineral ions to supply the mesophyll
            • The phloem carries the products of photosynthesis, e.g. sugar, to other parts of the plant
        • Growth
          • Require mineral ions for growth
            • Plant Physiology
              • Structure of a leaf
                • Adaptations
                  • Chloroplasts
                    • Contains Chlorophyll which helps the plant absorb light energy
                    • Stomata
                      • Pores which allow gases to enter and exit the plant
                  • Surface area
                    • For diffusion of gases
                    • Thin and flat so as much light can be absorbed
                  • Two outer layers
                    • The upper and lower epidermis have few chloroplasts and are covered by the cuticle
                      • Reduces water loss by evaporation and acts as a barrier to the entry of disease-causing micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi
                    • The lower epidermis have many pores called stomata: they allow carbon dioxide to diffuse into the leaf, allow oxygen and water vapour to diffuse out.
                  • Xylem and Phloem
                    • The xylem carries water and mineral ions to supply the mesophyll
                    • The phloem carries the products of photosynthesis, e.g. sugar, to other parts of the plant
                • Growth
                  • Require mineral ions for growth
                    • Nitrates
                      • Needed to make amino acids to build proteins
                    • Magnesium
                      • Needed to make chlorophyll
                  • Leaves
                    • Make glucose from carbon dioxide
                    • Make water using light energy from the Sun
                      • The energy is captured by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy in the glucose
                    • Oxygen is produced as waste product
                • Transport
                  • Osmosis
                    • Movement of water down a concentration gradient of water through a partially permeable membrane
                    • Water moves into and out of living cells by osmosis
                    • Plant cells need to be turgid to support the plant
                  • Diffusion
                    • Movement of solute molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration of solute to a lower concentration
            • Nitrates
              • Needed to make amino acids to build proteins
            • Magnesium
              • Needed to make chlorophyll
          • Leaves
            • Make glucose from carbon dioxide
            • Make water using light energy from the Sun
              • The energy is captured by chlorophyll and converted to chemical energy in the glucose
            • Oxygen is produced as waste product
        • Transport
          • Osmosis
            • Movement of water down a concentration gradient of water through a partially permeable membrane
            • Water moves into and out of living cells by osmosis
            • Plant cells need to be turgid to support the plant
          • Diffusion
            • Movement of solute molecules down a concentration gradient from a region of higher concentration of solute to a lower concentration

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