Plant disease and defence

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  • The Secret Life of Plants - Plant disease and defence
    • Plants need MINERAL IONS
      • Plants need MINERAL IONS from the SOIL. If there isn't enough, plants suffer DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS.
        • NITRATES - Needed to make PROTEINS and therefore GROWTH. Lack of causes STUNTED GROWTH.
        • MAGNESIUM IONS - Make CHLOROPHYLL, needed for PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Will suffer from CHLOROSIS and have YELLOW LEAVES
    • Plants can get DISEASES
      • Examples of diseases
        • APHIDS
          • Sharp mouthparts that penetrate PHLOEM, **** SAP. Act as vectors
        • TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS
          • Attacks leaves making them MOTTLED or DISCOLOURED
        • BLACK SPOT
          • Roughly CIRCULAR BLACK SPOTS on leaves.
    • PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL DEFENCES
      • MECHANICAL DEFENCES
        • Some MIMIC other organisms.
        • Some plants are adapted to have THORNS and HAIRS. Stop animals from TOUCHING and EATING them.
        • Some leaves DROOP and CURL. They knock INSECTS off and by MOVING AWAY from things.
  • Stunted GROWTH, Abnormal GROWTHS.
    • Disease signs
      • SPOTS on the leaves, MALFORMED stems or leaves
      • Patches of DECAY, DISCOLOURATION
      • Plants can get DISEASES
        • Examples of diseases
          • APHIDS
            • Sharp mouthparts that penetrate PHLOEM, **** SAP. Act as vectors
          • TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS
            • Attacks leaves making them MOTTLED or DISCOLOURED
          • BLACK SPOT
            • Roughly CIRCULAR BLACK SPOTS on leaves.
      • Signs can be identified by
        • GARDENING MANUALS or WEBSITES.
        • Taking the plant to a LABORATORY so the pathogen can be identified.
        • TESTING KITS that identify the pathogen using MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES
  • PHYSICAL DEFENCES
    • WAXY CUTICLE, provides BARRIER
    • CELL WALLS made from CELLULOSE, form a PHYSICAL BARRIER
    • LAYERS of DEAD CELLS around their STEMS. E.g. outer part of BARK on trees stop pathogens from entering.
    • PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL DEFENCES
      • MECHANICAL DEFENCES
        • Some MIMIC other organisms.
        • Some plants are adapted to have THORNS and HAIRS. Stop animals from TOUCHING and EATING them.
        • Some leaves DROOP and CURL. They knock INSECTS off and by MOVING AWAY from things.
  • CHEMICAL DEFENCES
    • Some plants produce ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMICALS which kill bacteria e.g. MINT PLANT and WITCH HAZEL
    • Other plants produce POISONS which deter herbivores e.g. TOBACCO PLANTS, FOXGLOVES and DEADLY NIGHTSHADE

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