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  • Piliavin
    • Aim
      • Investigate different variables on helping behaviour
    • Conclusion
      • Characteristics of victim did not affect whether help was or was not offered
      • Tendency for same-race helping only happened in the drunk condition
      • Bystanders make decisions to help or not based on the costs or rewards involved
    • Method
      • IV
        • Type of victim - drunk or ill
        • Race of victim - black or white
        • Presence of model - early or late
        • The number of bystanders present
      • DV
        • Time taken for first passenger to offer help
        • Gender, race, and location of every helper
        • Total number of passengers who helped
        • Time taken first passenger to offer help after the model had assisted
    • Participants
      • About 4450 men and women who used the trains on weekends between the hours of 11 and 3 during the period of 15th april to 26th June 1968
      • Four teams
        • Females observed and recorded data
        • Males acted as victim and role model
    • Findings
      • People who appeared ill rather than drunk got help faster
      • 90% of the first helpers were male
      • People of the same race tended to help the same race victim
      • Diffusion of responsibility


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