Piliavin et al

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  • Piliavin et al (1969)
    • Aims
      • Type of victim
      • Race of victim
      • Example behaviour
      • Number of witnesses
    • Procedure
      • A and D trains didn't stop for 7 and a half mins giving time for the 'emergency'
      • 11am-3pm
      • 70 seconds into journey the victim staggered and collapsed.
        • Would remain looking up until help was given
      • 103 trials
      • Victim
        • Male, Eisenhower jackets, old trousers, no tie
        • Drunk condition, they smelled of alcohol, held a bottle of liquor.
        • cane condition, sober, carried a black cane.
      • Model
        • White male
        • Critical area - early(70s)
        • Critical area late
        • Adjacent area - early
        • Adjacent area - late (150s)
      • Observers
        • Sex and location of every passenger and the number of people in carriage and how many aided the victim.
        • Race, sex and location of everyone in the adjacent area and recorded the amount of time taken for someone to help
    • Participants
      • 4450 people
      • 45% Black
    • Results
      • Cane victim received immediate help 62/65 trials whereas drunk victim received help 19/38 trials
      • When drunk, tended to only be members of the same race who helped.
      • If model helped early it triggered more helping behaviour.
      • People were helped faster when there were more than 7 male passengers.
      • 'I wish i could help him- im not strong enough'
    • Conclusions
      • ill is more likely to receive help than drunk
      • Men are more likely to help than women
      • Some tendency for same-race helping
      • Help comes quicker when there are more witnesses
      • The longer nobody helps for, the less impact a model's behaviour will have

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