Pilgrimage of Grace

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  • Pilgrimage of Grace
    • Causes
      • Religion
        • held banners with the five wounds of christ
        • dissolution of the monasteries
          • were the pride and joy of the area
          • Guy and Haigh proved first areas to rise were surrounding religious houses
          • monasteries were pivotal in local Parliaments as they provided poor relief and education
        • they were fearful of further reform - geographically conservative
        • Aske made religion main focus -> historians say = propaganda
          • held banners with the five wounds of christ
        • 9/24 Pontefract demands = religious
        • regional magnates also concerned - religion unified
      • Economic
        • A.G Dickens said: "the roots of the movement were decidedly economic"
        • harvest failure in 1535 and 1536
        • taxes
          • rumours of new taxes
          • 1534 collection of subsidy in peacetime
          • Entry Fines - taxes payable to land owner upon death of a tenant
        • Enclosure
          • York, West Riding started with tearing down hedges
          • Giggleswick - 300 people rise
        • statute of uses implemented (gentry only)
          • stopped them distributing land between trustees to avoid paying taxes
          • taxes
            • rumours of new taxes
            • 1534 collection of subsidy in peacetime
            • Entry Fines - taxes payable to land owner upon death of a tenant
        • rack renting, excessive rents and restriction of rights
      • Political
        • Aragonese political conspiracy?! some argue = to get Mary  on the throne
          • Hussey (one of the leaders) served in Mary's household
        • G. Elton: "originated in a decision by one of the court factions to take the battle out of court and into the nation"
          • Aragonese political conspiracy?! some argue = to get Mary  on the throne
            • Hussey (one of the leaders) served in Mary's household
        • centralisation
          • undermined feudal power in the North
            • hatred of service nobles and men such as Riche, Cromwell and Cranmer
              • called for  their removal
          • they wanted their own Parliament
        • hatred of service nobles and men such as Riche, Cromwell and Cranmer
          • called for  their removal
    • Protest into Rebellion?
      • widespread support
        • Lincolnshire rising had raised around 40,000, Pilgrimage of Grace = over 30,000
        • York welcomed the rebels
      • Able leadership
        • Aske  - lawyer with experience in London, good orator and very organised
        • noble support - they said they wanted t o help control rebellion. made much more dangerous for HVIII
          • Darcey Joined the rebellion when they took Pontefract castle - because he couldn't see how he could win?!
      • Lack of Government response
        • took Pontefract castle with little opposition
        • They had 35,000 men when Norfolk and the Earl of Shrewsbury  could only raise 8,000
        • mauch of the government's armies were diverted in Lincolnshire - including sussex (leader of the council of the North)
    • How were the rebels dealt with?
      • promised if they went home all would be forgiven and Henry would listen to demands
        • Henry then used an Enclosure riot in Cumbria to accuse them of breaking the agreement
      • 200+ monks hung
      • Aske hung from a tree for three days before he died
      • other leaders also executed
        • percy signed land over to Henry

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