Pilgrimage of Grace

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  • Pilgrimage of Grace
    • Dissolution of monasteries
      • crown in dire need of an addition permanent source of extra income
      • monasteries thought to be an easy target because already in crisisand rumoured to prefer papal supremacy instead of royal
      • Cromwell sent agents to visit every monastery in Kingdom 1535
        • visitations resulted in the compilation of the condition and conducts of the inmates
          • Valor Ecclesiastics recorded networth and annual income of each monastery= £122 million
      • 1536 act passed that all religious houses with an annual income of less than £200 should be dissolved and their property should pass to the crown
    • Lincolnshire Rising
      • begun in Louth when townspeople rioted on the strength of the rumours that the king intended to close town's church as well as nearby monastery
      • community was proud of its church having invested substantial sums in repairs and enlargement
      • vicar of louth made matters worse when he stated that the King intended to confiscate the treasures of all the parish churches in Eng and tax baptisms, marriages and funerals
        • news of riot in Louth spread to neigbouring towns and riots broke . out in Caistor, Horncastle and Sleaford
          • rioters joined forces and marched on the  city of Lincoln but the king sent an army under Duke of Suffolk and the rebellion collapsed
    • Piilgramige of Grace
      • LR collapsed people of Yorkshire rose in rebellion
        • Lawyer Robert Aske assumed control of the revolt and revised the Lincolnshie Rebels demands
          • placed more emphasis on preserving the church and defending the monasteries and as they moved north recruited more members including gentry.
            • soon rebels numbered more than 30,000 but the king did not initially appreciate the seriousness of the P of G and a royal army to 3 months to arrive
              • norfolk was outnumbered and playing for time so he arranged a truce and allowed the rebels to submit a list of their complaints
                • aske drew up the pontefract articles and henry issued a general pardon while he consifered the articles
                  • bigods rising broke out which reuslted in Aske's arrest and trial for treason as he was balmed for the renewal of the rebellion
                    • henry conceded to their demands, monastic lands to be .restored, cromwell to be removed and parliament called to adress wider concerns but did not actually carry them out
    • Causes
      • Religious Causes
        • dissolution of monasteries sparked the first rebellion
          • behind anger of D of M was wider discontent about the general direction of Henry's religious policy in the hands of Cromwell
            • cromwells attacks on tradiitonal practices such as pilgramiges and worship threatened centuries of belief
              • many believed that teachings of the catholic church that would better prepare them for death would be threatened- caused anger and fear,
        • religious aspect of both rebellions can be seen in actions and demands of rebels- name P of G showed rebels were modelling themselves on  traditional catholic rite of passage
          • 9 out of 14 demands were religious- rebels marched under a banner of the . 5 wounds of christ= rebelling in Gods name
      • Social and Economic Grievances
        • northern parts of england often suffered social and economic hardship and these problems had been made worse by gov demands for taxation in the 1534 subsidy
          • subsidy hit the north partic hard because it coincided with two years of bad weather and harvests
            • other factors such as demands of landlords- enclosure meant some tenants were forced off their land by their landlords.
      • Political causes
        • G.R. Elton believed that the Pilgrimage was essentially a court conspiracy, aimed at overthrowing the hated Cromwell.
          • restore mary to the royal succession


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