Pidgins

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  • Pidgins
    • Contact language
      • By joining two or more languages for the sole purpose of communicating
    • Occurs when there is no lingua franca (Common tongue)
    • Will contain features from both languages to construct a new form that fulfils the limited communication needs
    • Short Life
      • Tends to not exist long. Once the need for them are gone, so is the language form.
      • It is rare for pidgins to exist for more than 100 years
      • If they do last longer than 100 years they undergo expansion, creolisation
        • It is rare for pidgins to exist for more than 100 years
    • Origins
      • 19th Century
      • African slaves transported to North America created the first pidgin language
      • This was in order to communicate with each other and plantation bosses
      • The slaves were generally separated from their own community in order to reduce the likelihood of them formulating plans to escape
      • Colonisation also influenced the development of pidgin languages, which can been seen across the world and over time
    • One of the languages which forms the pidgins tends to be more dominant than the other
      • In English based pidgins, English would be the dominant language as a result of its status and social superiourity
    • Superstrate and Substrate
      • Superstrate
        • The dominate language which contributes more to the pidgin
      • Substrate
        • The minority language that contribute to the pidgin
    • Given that they are spoken form they do not have a written form
    • Mixing
      • There will be a mix of two languages
      • It will therefore be common to find lexis from both forms although the superstrate will typically dominate
      • Many pidgins are difficult for the BrEng user to understand because the mixing and wilding different pronunciation (which is reflected in the spelling) means the language appears alien
    • Reduction
      • When pidgins begin to develop we can see instances of reduction being integrated into speech, although these will generally be adopted as the standard word in the language
        • Come up = Kamap
      • Going to =  Gonna
      • The reduction of articulated sounds (Phonemes), in particular, whereby some syllables are slurred in speech
    • Simplification
      • The number of endings is generally reduced
      • The process in whereby grammar is made more simplistic by omitting or reducing the number of inflections, tense markers and markers of plurality
      • In verbs, irregular verbs, which are often indicate tense with vowel change will now do so using the regular inflectional ending
        • Verb would become to show pat tense
      • This can also be shown in the loss of grammatically redundant elements within structures
  • Tok Pisin
    • English
      • Superstrate
        • The dominate language which contributes more to the pidgin
    • Papa New Guinean
      • Substrate
        • The minority language that contribute to the pidgin

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