Physics - Radioactivity

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  • Physics - Radioactivity
    • Neutrons are neutral
    • Protons are positive
    • Electrons are negative
    • atoms have no charge which means that the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
    • the top number is the mass number (nucleon number)
      • tells us the total of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
      • number of neutrons=mass number-atomic number
    • the bottom number is the atomic number (proton number)
      • tells us the number of protons and the equal amount of electrons
      • number of neutrons=mass number-atomic number
    • the electrons orbit the nucleus
    • the electrons are lighter than all the others
    • the electrons have a - charge
  • protons are particles with a + charge
    • Physics - Radioactivity
      • Neutrons are neutral
      • Protons are positive
      • Electrons are negative
      • atoms have no charge which means that the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons
      • the top number is the mass number (nucleon number)
        • tells us the total of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus
      • the bottom number is the atomic number (proton number)
        • tells us the number of protons and the equal amount of electrons
      • the electrons orbit the nucleus
      • the electrons are lighter than all the others
      • the electrons have a - charge
  • neutrons are uncharged
    • the nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons
      • half life
        • the half life is the time taken for the activity of a radioactive substance to be reduced to half its original value
        • the half life is the time taken for half the radioactive atoms to disintigrate
      • alpha radiation can be stopped by a thin sheet of paper or skin , travels at 10% speed of light, made up of particles f helium neuclei
        • beta can be stopped by a few mm of aluminuim, travels at 90% speed of light, made up of fast moving electrons
      • gamma can be stopped by several cm of lead or many metres of concrete, no mass , pure energy
        • beta can be stopped by a few mm of aluminuim, travels at 90% speed of light, made up of fast moving electrons
      • Radiation is detected by a GEIGER COUNTER - gives us a couont rate - can work out the counts per minute ( CPM)
      • when radiation is emitted from an atom the nucleus inside disintigrates
        • gamma travel at the speed of light
          • gamma can travel through a vacuum
            • beta has a negative charge
      • radioactive decau is the breaking up of unstable nuclei
        • background radiation can be deteted by using a geiger muller tube
          • radioactive decay is completely random
            • these particles are not affected by magnetic or electric fields
      • background radiation can be deteted by using a geiger muller tube
        • radioactive decay is completely random
          • these particles are not affected by magnetic or electric fields

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