Physics P3.2

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  • Physics P3.2
    • Moments
      • The moment of a force is a measure of the turning effect of the force on an object
      • M= F x d
        • F= force
        • M= moment of the force
        • d= the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the pivot
      • To increase the moment of a force, increase F or increase d
    • Centre of mass
      • The centre pf mass of an object is that point where its mass can be thought to be concentrated
      • When a suspended object is in equilibrium, its centre of mass is directly beneath the point of suspension
      • The centre of mass of a symmetrical object is along the axis of symmetry
    • Moments in balance
      • For an object in equilibrium, the sum of the anticlockwise moments about any point = the sum of the clockwise moments about that point
      • To calculate the force needed to stop an object turning we use the equation >>>
    • Stability
      • The stability of an object is increased by making its base as wide as possible and its centre of mass as low as possible
      • An object will tend to topple over if the line of action of its weight is outside its base
      • An object topples over if the resultant moment about its point of turning is not zero
    • Hydraulics
      • P= F/A
        • P= pressure
        • F= force
        • A= cross sectional area at right angles to the direction of the force
      • The pressure in a fluid acts equally in all directions
      • A hydraulic system uses the pressure in a fluid to exert a force
    • Circular motion
      • The velocity of an object moving in a circle at constant speed is continually changing as the object's direction is continually changing
      • Centripetal acceleration is the acceleration towards the centre of the circle of an object that is moving round in a circle
      • The centripetal force on an object depends on its mass, its speed and the radius of the circle
    • The pendulum
      • The time period of a simple pendulum depends only on its length
      • To measure the time period of a pendulum, we can measure the average time for 20 oscillations and divide the timing by 20
      • Friction at the top of a playground swing and air resistance will stop it oscillating if it's not pushed repeatedly

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