# Physics P2 Summary

• Physics P2
• Velocity and Distance-Time graphs
• Speed= How FAST you are going
• Velocity= The DIRECTION you are going
• Speed= Distance / Time
• Acceleration
• Acceleration=   Change in velocity / Time taken
• Acceleration=gradient= vertical change / horizontal change
• Weight, Mass and Gravity
• Weight= mass x gravitational field strength
• Weight = Caused by the pull of the gravitational force.
• Mass= Amount of 'stuff' in an object
• Gravity= 10N/kg
• Resultant Forces
• Overall  force on a point or object
• Forces have to balance
• Change in velocity
• Forces and Acceleration
• If the resultant force on an object that is stationary is zero, it will remain stationary
• If there is no resultant force on a moving object it'll just carry on moving at the same velocity
• If there is a non-zero resultant force, the object will accelerate in the direction of the force
• Force= mass x acceleration
• When two objects interact, they exert opposite and equal forces
• Frictional force and Terminal Velocity
• Friction  slows things down
• Drag increases as the speed increases
• Objects falling through fluids reach a Terminal Velocity
• Terminal Velocity of an object depends on shape and area
• Stopping Distances
• Factors affecting Thinking Distance
• Factors affecting Braking Distance
• Stopping Distances
• Factors affecting Thinking Distance
• Factors affecting Braking Distance
• Speed
• How good your brakes are
• How good the tyres are
• How good the grip is
• Speed
• Whether you are under the influence of drugs
• Speed
• How good your brakes are
• How good the tyres are
• How good the grip is
• Speed
• Whether you are under the influence of drugs
• Work and Potential Energy
• When a force moves an object through a distance, energy is transferred and Work is Done
• Work Done= Force x Distance
• Gravitational Potential Energy= mass x g x height
• Kinetic Energy
• Kinetic Energy= 1/2 x mass x speed2
• Kinetic energy transferred= Work done by brakes
• Kinetic energy GAINED = Potential Energy LOST
• Falling objects convert Ep into Ek
• Power
• Power= Work Done (or energy transferred) / Time taken
• Watts
• Momentum and Collisions
• Momentum= mass x velocity
• Momentum before = Momentum after
• Car Design and safety
• Crumple Zones:
• Side Impact Bars
• Seat belts
• Air Bags
• Static Electricity
• Van der Graff
• Like charges repel, Opposite charges attract
• Only the electrons move - Never the positive charges
• Friction
• Current and Potential Difference
• The greater the resistance across a component, the smaller the current that flows
• Current= Charge / Time
• Potential difference = Work done / Charge
• Circuits
• Ammeter
• Measures current (amps)
• Series circuit only
• Can be put anywhere in the circuit, but never parallel like the voltmeter
• Volltmeter
• Measures the P.d
• Must be placed in parallel around the component under test
• Resistance
• Potential Difference= Current x Resistance
• The current through a resistor (at constant temp)   is directly proportional to P.D. Different resistors have different resistances, hence the different slopes
• As the temperature of the filament increases, the resistance increases, hence the curve
• Current will only flow through a diode in one direction
• Series Circuits
• P.D is shared
• Current is same everywhere
• Parallel Circuits
• P.D is the same across all components
• Current is shared between branches
• Mains Electricity
• AC
• Frequency=1 / Time Period
• Electricity in the Home
• Hazards
• Three-pin plug
• Safety features
• Fuses and Earthing
• Insulating materials make appliances Double Insulated
• RCCB
• Energy and Power in circuits
• Energy Transferred= Power rating x time
• Power and Energy change
• Power= Current x Potential difference
• Energy transformed= Charge x Potential differencc
• Atomic structure
• Rutherfordand Marsden Scattering experiment
• Atoms and Ionisation
• Alpha, Beta and Gamma
• Half Life
• The average time it takes for the number of nuclei in a radioactive isotope sample to halve
• / 2
• Smoke detectors (Alpha)
• Tracers (Short life Beta or Gamma)
• Sterilising ood and surgical instruments
• Nuclear Fission
• The splitting of big atomic nuclei
• Nuclear Fusion
• The joing of small atomic nuclei
• The life cycle of stars
• Stars same size  as sun
• Red Giant
• White Dwarf
• Stars bigger than the sun
• Red Super Giant
• Supernova
• Neutron Star
• Black Hole
• Planetary Nebula
• Protostar
• Main Sequence Star
• Static Electricity
• Van der Graff
• Like charges repel, Opposite charges attract
• Only the electrons move - Never the positive charges
• Friction
• Energy Transferred= Power rating x time

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Sorry, its a big topic :/

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This is really helpful. I just had a quick read through ready for a mock I have tomorrow, but I will definitely be coming back to this when it's closer to my GCSEs. And I will definitely be recommending to everyone here.

Thank you very much for creating this :)

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@Racheal_Stevens,

Sorry for the extra late reply, I've been away for a while:/ You're very welcome! I'm glad it came into some good use and helped you out!

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