# energy and waves

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• physics 1b
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• generating electricity
• Fossil fuels and nuclear power
• coal, oil and gas release heat energy when they are burnt and are formed from the remains of living organisms which have kept their energy.
• uranium and plutonium generate heat through a process called nuclear fission which is when you split the nucleus of these atoms into two smaller nuclei.
• solar power and geothermal energy
• Solar cells are devices which convert light into electrical energy.  Used for calculators, road signs and satellites orbiting the earth.
• Panel of solar cells- produces a small amount of electricity which can be used to power small devices such as: watches and calculators.
• solar heating panel- Water flowing through a solar heating panel uses heat energy directly from the sun to generate electricity.
• Geothermal energy- produced inside the earth by radioactive currents which heat the surrounding rock.
• In volcanic or other suitable areas very deep holes are drilled and cold water is pumped down to the hot rocks. There it is heated and comes back to the surface as steam. The steam is used to drive the turbines so electricity is produced.
• noise cancelling headphones= play a wave as close to silent as possible.
• frequency increases= pitch increases.
• volume increases= amplitude increases.
• process of waves mixing together= interference combining of 2 waves.
• refraction
• change of direction of a wave as it changed medium.
• When light enters the glass it slows down.
• when light leaves the glass it speeds up.
• reflection
• straight lines.
• All angles are measured from the normal.
• The angle that hits the mirror is always equal to the angle that reflects
• from light source to eyes.
• Waves
• wave speed= frequency times wavelength
• Frequency= number of waves passed divided by time.
• Amplitude= distance from peak to the middle or peak to trough.
• wavelength= distance from peak to peak or trough to trough.
• diffraction
• spreading out of a wave as it passes through a gap.
• Narrower a gap= greater the diffraction.
• smaller gap= smaller the diffractive wavefronts
• wind and hydroelectric power
• wind- consists of 116ft blades on top of a 212 foot tower which has a total of 328 feet.
• used to grind corn which is where the term windmill came from.
• wave- moves up and down which drives air past the generator. This generates electricity that can be used in the local area.
• tidal- when the tide comes in it drives the turbine and produces a small amount of electricity which is carried away.
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