Chemistry C1 Particles- Topic Summary

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  • Chemistry- C1 ~ The Particle Model
    • Chemical & Physical Changes
      • Physical changes are reversible & no new substances are made
      • Chemical changes are often difficult to reverse and  new substances are made
        • E.g. Methane + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
    • Developing The Atomic Model
      • 1803- Dalton's solid atom, electron discovered
      • 1897- Thomson's plum-pudding model, nucleus discovered. Sphere of positive charge with electrons embedded
      • 1909- Rutherford's planetary model, mathematical models
      • 1913- Bohr's energy levels model; proton, then neutron discovered
      • Protons & neutrons make up the nucleus. Surrounded by electrons in their outer shells
        • The nucleus is much smaller than the atom & has most of the atom's mass
    • Atomic Structure
      • 2 oxygen atoms joined together = oxygen molecule
      • Bond length & atomic radius in order of 10^-10m (0.1nm)
      • Ions- Atoms or groups of atoms that have lost or gained electrons
      • Isotopes are atoms of an element with same number of protons & electrons and different numbers of neutrons
      • Chemical symbol- top is mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons. Middle is chemical symbol & bottom is atomic number = number of protons
    • The Particle Model
      • Particles represented as hard spheres, properties of a substance depend on  its state
      • Solids; Very close together, regular arrangement, vibrate around fixed positions
      • Liquids; close together, random arrangement, move around each other
      • Gas; far apart, random arrangement, move quickly in all directions
      • Particles are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction (bonds)
      • Limitations; Doesn't take into account- size of particles, space or force between particles


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