# Physics P1

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• P1.1 - Energy
• Infrared Radiation is energy transfer by electro magnetic waves
• All objects emit infrared radiation.
• The hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it emits at a given time.
• P1.1.2 - Surfaces and Radiation.
• Dark Matt Surfaces Emit more infrared than light shiny surfaces.
• Dark, matt objects absorb more infrared than light shiny surfaces.
• Light, shiny surfaces emit more infrared than dark matt surfaces.
• P1.1.3 - States of Matter
• Flow, shape and volume are the processes used to describe states of matter.
• The particles in a solid are held close together in fixed positions.
• The particles in a liquid move about slightly more at random but still maintain contact.
• The particles in a gas move around much more randomly, and are more spaced out
• P1.1.4 - Conduction
• Metals are the best energy conductors
• Materials such as wool and fibreglass are the best insulators.
• Conduction in Metals is mainly due to free electrons transferring the energy between them.
• Non-Metals are poor conductors because they do not contain free electrons
• P1.1.5 - Convection
• Convection is the circulation of a fluid caused by heating it.
• Convection takes place only in liquids and gases.
• Heating a liquid or a gas makes it less dense so it rises and cause circulation.
• P1.1.6 - Evaporation and Condensation
• Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas.
• Condensation is where a gas turns into a liquid.
• Cooling by evaporation of a liquid is due to the faster moving molecules escaping from the liquid.
• Evaporation can be increased by increasing the surface area of the liquid, by increasing the liquids temperature, or by creating a draught of air across the liquid's surface.
• Condensation on a surface can be increased by increasing the area of the surface or by reducing the temperature of the surface.
• P1.1.7 - Energy Transfer by Design.
• The rate of energy transferred to or from an object depends on
• The size, shape and type of material of the object.
• The materials the object is in contact with.
• The temperature difference between the object and its surroundings.
• P1.1.8 - Specific Heat Capacity.
• The greater the mass of an object, the more slowly its temperature increases when it is heated.
• The rate of temperature change of a substance when it is heated depends on:
• The energy supplied to it
• It's mass
• Its specific heat capacity.
• Storage heaters use off-peak electricity to store energy in special bricks.
• P1.1.9 - Heating and Insulating Buildings.
• Energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting.
• Loft Insulaltion
• Cavity Wall Insulation
• Double Glazing
• Draught Proofing