Physics P1

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  • P1.1 - Energy
    • P1.1.1 - Infrared Radiation
      • Infrared Radiation is energy transfer by electro magnetic waves
      • All objects emit infrared radiation.
      • The hotter an object is the more infrared radiation it emits at a given time.
    • P1.1.2 - Surfaces and Radiation.
      • Dark Matt Surfaces Emit more infrared than light shiny surfaces.
      • Dark, matt objects absorb more infrared than light shiny surfaces.
      • Light, shiny surfaces emit more infrared than dark matt surfaces.
    • P1.1.3 - States of Matter
      • Flow, shape and volume are the processes used to describe states of matter.
      • The particles in a solid are held close together in fixed positions.
      • The particles in a liquid move about slightly more at random but still maintain contact.
      • The particles in a gas move around much more randomly, and are more spaced out
    • P1.1.4 - Conduction
      • Metals are the best energy conductors
      • Materials such as wool and fibreglass are the best insulators.
      • Conduction in Metals is mainly due to free electrons transferring the energy between them.
      • Non-Metals are poor conductors because they do not contain free electrons
    • P1.1.5 - Convection
      • Convection is the circulation of a fluid caused by heating it.
      • Convection takes place only in liquids and gases.
      • Heating a liquid or a gas makes it less dense so it rises and cause circulation.
    • P1.1.6 - Evaporation and Condensation
      • Evaporation is when a liquid turns into a gas.
      • Condensation is where a gas turns into a liquid.
      • Cooling by evaporation of a liquid is due to the faster moving molecules escaping from the liquid.
      • Evaporation can be increased by increasing the surface area of the liquid, by increasing the liquids temperature, or by creating a draught of air across the liquid's surface.
      • Condensation on a surface can be increased by increasing the area of the surface or by reducing the temperature of the surface.
    • P1.1.7 - Energy Transfer by Design.
      • The rate of energy transferred to or from an object depends on
        • The size, shape and type of material of the object.
        • The materials the object is in contact with.
        • The temperature difference between the object and its surroundings.
    • P1.1.8 - Specific Heat Capacity.
      • The greater the mass of an object, the more slowly its temperature increases when it is heated.
      • The rate of temperature change of a substance when it is heated depends on:
        • The energy supplied to it
        • It's mass
        • Its specific heat capacity.
      • Storage heaters use off-peak electricity to store energy in special bricks.
    • P1.1.9 - Heating and Insulating Buildings.
      • Energy transfer from our homes can be reduced by fitting.
        • Loft Insulaltion
        • Cavity Wall Insulation
        • Double Glazing
        • Draught Proofing
        • Aluminium foil behind radiators.
      • U-Values tell us how much energy passes each second through different materials
      • Solar heating panels do not use fuel to heat water but they are expensive to buy and install.


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