Physical middle adulthood, menopause

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  • Physical Middle Adulthood Menopause
    • what is menopause?
      • Menopause is a condition that all women experience as they age.
        • The term 'menopause' can describe any of the changes a woman goes through just before or after she stops menstruating, marking the end of her reproductive period.
        • The biological process of menopause
        • menopause is the last stage of a gradual biological process in which the ovaries will begin to reduce their production of female sex hormones, a process which begins about 3-5 years before the final menstrual period. This transitional phase is called peri-menopause.
          • The biological process of menopause
    • why and when does menopause happen?
      • why
        • A woman is born with a certain number of eggs, which are stored in the ovaries
          • The ovaries make the hormones oestrogen and progesterone, which controls menstruation and ovulation.
            • Menopause happens when the ovaries no longer release an egg every month and menstruation stops.
      • when
        • Most women will go through menopause between the ages of 45 and 55.
          • however, menopause may occur as earlier as ages 30s or 40s, or it may not occur until a later time, typically when a woman reaches her 60s.
    • Common signs and symptoms of menopause
      • In the months or years leading up to menopause, you may experience the signs and symptoms
        • irregular periods
        • Vaginal dryness
        • hot flushes
        • chills
        • night sweats
        • sleep problems
        • mood changes
        • weight gain and slowed metabolism
        • thinning of the hair and dry skin
        • Loss of breast fullness
    • Treatment options
      • treatments focus on relieving your signs & symptoms and preventing or managing chronic conditions that could occur with ageing.
        • treatments may include:
          • Hormone therapy
            • oestrogen therapy is the most effective treatment option for relieving menopause hot flashes.
          • vaginal oestrogen
            • to relieve vaginal dryness, oestrogen can be administered directly to the vagina using vaginal cream, tablet or ring.
              • this treatment releases just a small amount of oestrogen, which is absorbed by the vaginal tissues.
                • this can help relieve vaginal dryness, discomfort with intercourse and some urinary symptoms
          • Gabapentin (Neurontin, Gralise, others)
            • Gabapentin is approved to treat seizures, but it has been shown to help reduce hot flushes.
              • This drug is useful in women who cant use oestrogen therapy and in those who also have night-time hot flushes.
        • treatments may include:
          • Low-dose anti-depressants
            • Certain anti-depressants related to the class of drugs called 'selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors' (SSRIs) may decrease menopausal hot flushes.
              • A low-dose anti-depressant  for management of hot flushes may be useful for women who cant take oestrogen for health reasons or for women who need an anti-depressant for a mood disorder
          • Clonidine (Catapres, Kapvay, others)
            • Clonidine, a pill or patch typically used to treat high blood pressure, which may provide some relief from hot flushes.
          • Medications to prevent or treat osteoperosis
            • Depending on individual needs, doctors may recommend medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis.
              • Several medications are available that help reduce bone loss and risk of fractures.
                • Your doctor might prescribe vitamin D supplements to help strengthen bones.
    • Is there such thing as a male menopause?
      • There is such thing as a male menopause.
        • However, it is referred to as androgen decline (also to as testosterone decline)) in the ageing male.
          • Men do not go through ta well defined period referred to as menopause.
            • However, men do experience a decline in the production of the male hormone testosterone with ageing.
      • Along with the decline in testosterone, some men experience symptoms that include:
        • Fatigue
        • weakness
        • depression
        • Sexual Problems

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